124 research outputs found

    Ascorbic acid is associated with favourable hormonal profiles among infertile males

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    IntroductionInfertility affects about 16% of North American couples, with the male factor contributing to ‚ąľ30% of cases. Reproductive hormones play an integral role in regulating the reproductive system and consequently, fertility. Oxidative stress reduces testosterone synthesis, and reduction in oxidative stress can improve hormone profiles. Ascorbic acid is a potent antioxidant that accounts for up to 65% of seminal antioxidant activity; however, its effects on reproductive hormones in humans are unknown.MethodsThe objective was to determine the association between serum ascorbic acid concentrations and male reproductive hormones. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving infertile males (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ302) recruited from Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto. Serum was analyzed for ascorbic acid, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (TT), prolactin and estradiol. Statistical analyses included Spearman's rank correlations, linear regressions, logistic regressions, simple slope and Johnson-Neyman procedures.ResultsAfter adjusting for covariates, ascorbic acid was inversely associated with LH (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.01). Ascorbic acid was positively associated with TT only among males over the age of 41.6 years (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.01).DiscussionOur findings show that ascorbic acid is associated with higher testosterone levels and improved androgenic status in infertile males, and some of the effects appear to be age dependent

    Correction to: Variation in the vitamin D receptor gene, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and risk of premenstrual symptoms

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    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status has been associated with the presence and severity of several premenstrual symptoms (PMSx) in some, but not all studies. Inconsistencies among findings may be explained by unaccounted genetic variation in the vitamin D receptor (VDR). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether associations between vitamin D status and individual PMSx are influenced by VDR genotype. METHODS: Seven hundred sixteen women aged 20-29 years old from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study provided plasma samples and completed a questionnaire on the presence and severity of 15 common PMSx. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was measured and participants were categorized into sufficient (‚Č• 50 nmol/L) and insufficient (< 50 nmol/L) vitamin D status groups. DNA was obtained from blood samples to genotype for a common VDR single nucleotide variant, rs796858. Using logistic regression, odds of experiencing PMSx were compared between vitamin D-sufficient and insufficient women, stratified by genotype. RESULTS: Among CC homozygotes, insufficient vitamin D status was associated with higher odds of experiencing premenstrual fatigue (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.40, 4.56) and nausea (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.00, 5.95). Among TT homozygotes, insufficient vitamin D status was associated with lower odds of experiencing fatigue (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20, 0.97) and increased appetite (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.22, 1.04). Insufficient vitamin D status was associated with higher odds of increased appetite in women with the CT genotype (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.03, 3.07). VDR genotype modified the association between vitamin D status and the following PMSx: increased appetite (interaction p = 0.027), fatigue (interaction p = 0.016), and nausea (interaction p = 0.039). CONCLUSION: We found evidence that VDR genotype may modify the association between 25(OH)D and some PMSx. Insufficient 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of premenstrual fatigue in those with the CC genotype, but lower risk in those with the TT genotype. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12263-021-00696-2

    Plasma Carotenoids and Premenstrual Symptoms in a Multi-Ethnic Population of Young Women

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    Premenstrual symptoms are experienced by most women of reproductive age, but effective therapies are limited. Carotenoids may have an attenuating effect on premenstrual symptoms; however, studies to date are equivocal. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of seven carotenoids and premenstrual symptom severity in 553 women from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study. Participants provided information on fifteen common premenstrual symptoms and severities. Each participant completed a General Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample from which plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to determine associations between plasma carotenoid concentrations and premenstrual symptom severity. Beta-cryptoxanthin was associated with moderate/severe increased appetite for women in the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.89). This association remained significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. There were no observed associations between other plasma carotenoids and any premenstrual symptoms. In summary, higher concentrations of beta-cryptoxanthin were associated with an increased appetite as a premenstrual symptom, but no associations were observed for any other carotenoid and for any other symptom

    The Impact of Migration on the Gut Metagenome of South Asian Canadians

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    South Asian (SA) Canadian immigrants have a higher risk of developing certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases compared to non-migrant SAs. We sought to investigate the effect of migration on the gut metagenome and to identify microbiological associations between migration and conditions that may influence the development of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Metagenomic analysis of 58 first-generation (GEN1) SA immigrants and 38 unrelated Canadian born children-of-immigrants (GEN2) determined that the time lived in Canada was associated with continued changes in gut microbial communities. Migration of GEN1 to Canada early in life results in a gut community with similarities to GEN2 SA Canadians and non-SA North Americans. Conversely, GEN1 immigrants who arrived recently to Canada exhibited pronounced differences from GEN2, while displaying microbial similarities to a non-migrating SA cohort. Multivariate analysis identified that community composition was primarily influenced by high abundance taxa. Prevotella copri dominated in GEN1 and non-migrant SAs. Clostridia and functionally related Bacteroidia spp. replaced P. copri dominance over generations in Canada. Mutually exclusive Dialister species occurred at differing relative abundances over time and generations in Canada. This shift in species composition is accompanied by a change in genes associated with carbohydrate utilization and short-chain fatty acid production. Total energy derived from carbohydrates compared to protein consumption was significantly higher for GEN1 recent immigrants, which may influence the functional requirements of the gut community. This study demonstrates the associations between migration and the gut microbiome, which may be further associated with the altered risk of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases observed for SA Canadians

    Goals in Nutrition Science 2020-2025

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    Five years ago, with the editorial board of Frontiers in Nutrition, we took a leap of faith to outline the Goals for Nutrition Science - the way we see it (1). Now, in 2020, we can put ourselves to the test and take a look back. Without a doubt we got it right with several of the key directions. To name a few, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for Food and Nutrition are part of the global public agenda, and the SDGs contribute to the structuring of international science and research. Nutritional Science has become a critical element in strengthening work on the SDGs, and the development of appropriate methodologies is built on the groundwork of acquiring and analyzing big datasets. Investigation of the Human Microbiome is providing novel insight on the interrelationship between nutrition, the immune system and disease. Finally, with an advanced definition of the gut-brain-axis we are getting a glimpse into the potential for Nutrition and Brain Health. Various milestones have been achieved, and any look into the future will have to consider the lessons learned from Covid-19 and the sobering awareness about the frailty of our food systems in ensuring global food security. With a view into the coming 5 years from 2020 to 2025, the editorial board has taken a slightly different approach as compared to the previous Goals article. A mind map has been created to outline the key topics in nutrition science. Not surprisingly, when looking ahead, the majority of scientific investigation required will be in the areas of health and sustainability. Johannes le Coutre, Field Chief Editor, Frontiers in Nutrition

    Soy Consumption, but Not Dairy Consumption, Is Inversely Associated with Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Young Adults

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    Past research using hepatic rat microsomes showed that soy protein suppressed delta-6 desaturase activity (D6D) compared to casein (a dairy protein). The effects of soy and dairy on desaturase pathway activity in humans remain poorly investigated. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the association between soy and dairy consumption with plasma fatty acids and estimate the desaturase pathway activity in a multiethnic Canadian population of young adults. We analyzed data from men (n = 319) and women (n = 764) previously collected for the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Food frequency questionnaires and plasma fatty acids were assessed. Relationships between soy and dairy beverages and food consumption with estimated desaturase activities were assessed by regression models and by grouping participants according to beverage and food intake data. Weak inverse associations (p ‚ȧ 0.05) were found between soy consumption and the overall desaturation pathway activity, specifically D6D activity. When participants were grouped based on soy and dairy consumption habits, omega-6 LC-PUFAs, as well as various estimates of the desaturase pathway activity, were significantly lower in individuals consuming soy (with or without dairy) compared to individuals consuming only fluid milk and dairy products. In conclusion, soy consumption, not dairy consumption, appears to suppress desaturase pathway activity

    Plasma Carotenoids and Premenstrual Symptoms in a Multi-Ethnic Population of Young Women

    No full text
    Premenstrual symptoms are experienced by most women of reproductive age, but effective therapies are limited. Carotenoids may have an attenuating effect on premenstrual symptoms; however, studies to date are equivocal. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of seven carotenoids and premenstrual symptom severity in 553 women from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study. Participants provided information on fifteen common premenstrual symptoms and severities. Each participant completed a General Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample from which plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to determine associations between plasma carotenoid concentrations and premenstrual symptom severity. Beta-cryptoxanthin was associated with moderate/severe increased appetite for women in the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.89). This association remained significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. There were no observed associations between other plasma carotenoids and any premenstrual symptoms. In summary, higher concentrations of beta-cryptoxanthin were associated with an increased appetite as a premenstrual symptom, but no associations were observed for any other carotenoid and for any other symptom

    Nutrition, Genetic Variation and Male Fertility

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    Infertility affects nearly 50 million couples worldwide, with 40‚ąí50% of cases having a male factor component. It is well established that nutritional status impacts reproductive development, health and function, although the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Genetic variation that affects nutrient metabolism may impact fertility through nutrigenetic mechanisms. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of several dietary components (vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, folate, betaine, choline, calcium, iron, caffeine, fiber, sugar, dietary fat, and gluten) in male reproductive health. Evidence of gene-nutrient interactions and their potential effect on fertility is also examined. Understanding the relationship between genetic variation, nutrition and male fertility is key to developing personalized, DNA-based dietary recommendations to enhance the fertility of men who have difficulty conceiving

    Toward the Definition of Personalized Nutrition: A Proposal by The American Nutrition Association.

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    Personalized nutrition holds tremendous potential to improve human health. Despite exponential growth, the field has yet to be clearly delineated and a consensus definition of the term "personalized nutrition" (PN) has not been developed. Defining and delineating the field will foster standardization and scalability in research, data, training, products, services, and clinical practice; and assist in driving favorable policy. Building on the seminal work of pioneering thought leaders across disciplines, we propose that personalized nutrition be defined as: a field that leverages human individuality to drive nutrition strategies that prevent, manage, and treat disease and optimize health, and be delineated by three synergistic elements: PN science and data, PN professional education and training, and PN guidance and therapeutics. Herein we describe the application of PN in these areas and discuss challenges and solutions that the field faces as it evolves. This and future work will contribute to the continued refinement and growth of the field of PN.Teaching pointsPN approaches can be most effective when there is consensus regarding its definition and applications.PN can be delineated into three main areas of application: PN science and data, PN education and training, PN guidance and therapeutics.PN science and data foster understanding about the impact of genetic, phenotypic, biochemical and nutritional inputs on an individual's health.PN education and training equip a variety of healthcare professionals to apply PN strategies in many healthcare settings.PN professionals have greater ability to tailor interventions via PN guidance and therapeutics.Favorable policy allows PN to be more fully integrated into the healthcare system.JMO would like to thank the US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service (8050‚Äď51000-098-00D).S

    Goals in Nutrition Science 2020-2025.

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    Five years ago, with the editorial board of Frontiers in Nutrition, we took a leap of faith to outline the Goals for Nutrition Science - the way we see it (1). Now, in 2020, we can put ourselves to the test and take a look back. Without a doubt we got it right with several of the key directions. To name a few, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for Food and Nutrition are part of the global public agenda, and the SDGs contribute to the structuring of international science and research. Nutritional Science has become a critical element in strengthening work on the SDGs, and the development of appropriate methodologies is built on the groundwork of acquiring and analyzing big datasets. Investigation of the Human Microbiome is providing novel insight on the interrelationship between nutrition, the immune system and disease. Finally, with an advanced definition of the gut-brain-axis we are getting a glimpse into the potential for Nutrition and Brain Health. Various milestones have been achieved, and any look into the future will have to consider the lessons learned from Covid-19 and the sobering awareness about the frailty of our food systems in ensuring global food security. With a view into the coming 5 years from 2020 to 2025, the editorial board has taken a slightly different approach as compared to the previous Goals article. A mind map has been created to outline the key topics in nutrition science. Not surprisingly, when looking ahead, the majority of scientific investigation required will be in the areas of health and sustainability. Johannes le Coutre, Field Chief Editor, Frontiers in Nutrition
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