900 research outputs found

    Red supergiant stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Infrared properties and mid-infrared variability

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    The characteristics of IR properties and MIR variability of RSGs in the LMC are analyzed based on 12 bands of NIR to MIR co-added data from 2MASS, Spitzer and WISE, and \sim6.6 years of MIR time-series data collected by the ALLWISE and NEOWISE-R projects. 773 RSGs candidates were compiled from the literature and verified by using the CMD, SED and MIR variability. About 15\% of valid targets in the IRAC1IRAC2IRAC1-IRAC2/IRAC2IRAC3IRAC2-IRAC3 diagram may show PAH emission. We show that arbitrary dereddening Q parameters related to the IRAC4, S9W, WISE3, WISE4, and MIPS24 bands could be constructed based on a precise measurement of MIR interstellar extinction law. Several peculiar outliers in our sample are discussed, in which one outlier might be a RSG right before the explosion or an x-AGB star in the very late evolutionary stage based on the MIR spectrum and photometry. There are 744 identified RSGs in the final sample having both the WISE1- and WISE2-band time-series data. The results show that the MIR variability is increasing along with the increasing of brightness. There is a relatively tight correlation between the MIR variability, MLR, and the warm dust or continuum, where the MIR variability is evident for the targets with KSWISE3>1.0 magK_S-WISE3>1.0~mag and WISE4<6.5 magWISE4<6.5~mag, while the rest of the targets show much smaller MIR variability. The MIR variability is also correlated with the MLR for which targets with larger variability also show larger MLR with an approximate upper limit of 6.1 M/yr1-6.1~M_\odot/yr^{-1}. Both the variability and the luminosity may be important for the MLR since the WISE4-band flux is increasing exponentially along with the degeneracy of luminosity and variability. The identified RSG sample has been compared with the theoretical evolutionary models and shown that the discrepancy between observation and evolutionary models can be mitigated by considering both variability and extinction.Comment: 24 pages, 22 figures, A&A accepte

    Glucocorticoid receptor haploinsufficiency causes hypertension and attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and blood pressure adaptions to high-fat diet

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    Glucocorticoid hormones are critical to respond and adapt to stress. Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and associate with hypertension and susceptibility to metabolic disease. Here we test the hypothesis that reduced GR density alters blood pressure and glucose and lipid homeostasis and limits adaption to obesogenic diet. Heterozygous GR βgeo/+ mice were generated from embryonic stem (ES) cells with a gene trap integration of a β-galactosidase-neomycin phosphotransferase (βgeo) cassette into the GR gene creating a transcriptionally inactive GR fusion protein. Although GRβgeo/+ mice have 50% less functional GR, they have normal lipid and glucose homeostasis due to compensatory HPA axis activation but are hypertensive due to activation of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS). When challenged with a high-fat diet, weight gain, adiposity, and glucose intolerance were similarly increased in control and GRβgeo/+ mice, suggesting preserved control of intermediary metabolism and energy balance. However, whereas a high-fat diet caused HPA activation and increased blood pressure in control mice, these adaptions were attenuated or abolished in GRβgeo/+ mice. Thus, reduced GR density balanced by HPA activation leaves glucocorticoid functions unaffected but mineralocorticoid functions increased, causing hypertension. Importantly, reduced GR limits HPA and blood pressure adaptions to obesogenic diet

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum