183,320 research outputs found

    Average distance in a hierarchical scale-free network: an exact solution

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    Various real systems simultaneously exhibit scale-free and hierarchical structure. In this paper, we study analytically average distance in a deterministic scale-free network with hierarchical organization. Using a recursive method based on the network construction, we determine explicitly the average distance, obtaining an exact expression for it, which is confirmed by extensive numerical calculations. The obtained rigorous solution shows that the average distance grows logarithmically with the network order (number of nodes in the network). We exhibit the similarity and dissimilarity in average distance between the network under consideration and some previously studied networks, including random networks and other deterministic networks. On the basis of the comparison, we argue that the logarithmic scaling of average distance with network order could be a generic feature of deterministic scale-free networks.Comment: Definitive version published in Journal of Statistical Mechanic

    Evolutionary optimization of a fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

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    This paper presents a genetic algorithms approach for the optimization of a fed-batch penicillin fermentation process. A customized float-encoding genetic algorithm is developed and implemented to a benchmark fed-batch penicillin fermentation process. Off-line optimization of the initial conditions and set points are carried out in two stages for a single variable and multiple variables. Further investigations with online optimization have been carried out to demonstrate that the yield can be significantly improved with an optimal feed rate profile. The results have shown that the proposed approaches can be successfully applied to optimization problems of fed-batch fermentation to improve the operation of such processes

    Secure Quantum Secret Sharing Based on Reusable GHZ States as Secure Carriers

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    We show a potential eavesdropper can eavesdrop whole secret information when the legitimate users use secure carrier to encode and decode classical information repeatedly in the protocol [proposed in Bagherinezhad S and Karimipour V 2003 Phys. Rev. A \textbf{67} 044302]. Then we present a revised quantum secret sharing protocol by using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state as secure carrier. Our protocol can resist Eve's attack

    Synthetic horizontal branch morphology for different metallicities and ages under tidally enhanced stellar wind

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    It is believed that, except for metallicity, some other parameters are needed to explain the horizontal branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs). Furthermore, these parameters are considered to be correlated with the mass loss of the red giant branch (RGB) stars. In our previous work, we proposed that tidally enhanced stellar wind during binary evolution may affect the HB morphology by enhancing the mass loss of the red giant primary. As a further study, we now investigate the effects of metallicity and age on HB morphology by considering tidally enhanced stellar winds during binary evolution. We incorporated the tidally enhanced-stellar-wind model into Eggleton's stellar evolution code to study the binary evolution. To study the effects of metallicity and age on our final results, we conducted two sets of model calculations: (i) for a fixed age, we used three metallicities, namely Z=0.0001, 0.001, and 0.02. (ii) For a fixed metallicity, Z=0.001, we used five ages in our model calculations: 14, 13, 12, 10, and 7 Gyr. We found that HB morphology of GCs becomes bluer with decreasing metallicity, and old GCs present bluer HB morphology than young ones. These results are consistent with previous work. Although the envelope-mass distributions of zero-age HB stars produced by tidally enhanced stellar wind are similar for different metallicities, the synthetic HB under tidally enhanced stellar wind for Z=0.02 presented a distinct gap between red and blue HB. However, this feature was not seen clearly in the synthetic HB for Z=0.001 and 0.0001. We also found that higher binary fractions may make HB morphology become bluer, and we discussed the results with recent observations.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Resonant Tunneling through S- and U-shaped Graphene Nanoribbons

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    We theoretically investigate resonant tunneling through S- and U-shaped nanostructured graphene nanoribbons. A rich structure of resonant tunneling peaks are found eminating from different quasi-bound states in the middle region. The tunneling current can be turned on and off by varying the Fermi energy. Tunability of resonant tunneling is realized by changing the width of the left and/or right leads and without the use of any external gates.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figure