12,681 research outputs found

    A Characterization of Cybersecurity Posture from Network Telescope Data

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    Data-driven understanding of cybersecurity posture is an important problem that has not been adequately explored. In this paper, we analyze some real data collected by CAIDA's network telescope during the month of March 2013. We propose to formalize the concept of cybersecurity posture from the perspectives of three kinds of time series: the number of victims (i.e., telescope IP addresses that are attacked), the number of attackers that are observed by the telescope, and the number of attacks that are observed by the telescope. Characterizing cybersecurity posture therefore becomes investigating the phenomena and statistical properties exhibited by these time series, and explaining their cybersecurity meanings. For example, we propose the concept of {\em sweep-time}, and show that sweep-time should be modeled by stochastic process, rather than random variable. We report that the number of attackers (and attacks) from a certain country dominates the total number of attackers (and attacks) that are observed by the telescope. We also show that substantially smaller network telescopes might not be as useful as a large telescope

    Adaptive Epidemic Dynamics in Networks: Thresholds and Control

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    Theoretical modeling of computer virus/worm epidemic dynamics is an important problem that has attracted many studies. However, most existing models are adapted from biological epidemic ones. Although biological epidemic models can certainly be adapted to capture some computer virus spreading scenarios (especially when the so-called homogeneity assumption holds), the problem of computer virus spreading is not well understood because it has many important perspectives that are not necessarily accommodated in the biological epidemic models. In this paper we initiate the study of such a perspective, namely that of adaptive defense against epidemic spreading in arbitrary networks. More specifically, we investigate a non-homogeneous Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model where the model parameters may vary with respect to time. In particular, we focus on two scenarios we call semi-adaptive defense and fully-adaptive} defense, which accommodate implicit and explicit dependency relationships between the model parameters, respectively. In the semi-adaptive defense scenario, the model's input parameters are given; the defense is semi-adaptive because the adjustment is implicitly dependent upon the outcome of virus spreading. For this scenario, we present a set of sufficient conditions (some are more general or succinct than others) under which the virus spreading will die out; such sufficient conditions are also known as epidemic thresholds in the literature. In the fully-adaptive defense scenario, some input parameters are not known (i.e., the aforementioned sufficient conditions are not applicable) but the defender can observe the outcome of virus spreading. For this scenario, we present adaptive control strategies under which the virus spreading will die out or will be contained to a desired level.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures. This paper was submitted in March 2009, revised in August 2009, and accepted in December 2009. However, the paper was not officially published until 2014 due to non-technical reason

    An Evasion and Counter-Evasion Study in Malicious Websites Detection

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    Malicious websites are a major cyber attack vector, and effective detection of them is an important cyber defense task. The main defense paradigm in this regard is that the defender uses some kind of machine learning algorithms to train a detection model, which is then used to classify websites in question. Unlike other settings, the following issue is inherent to the problem of malicious websites detection: the attacker essentially has access to the same data that the defender uses to train its detection models. This 'symmetry' can be exploited by the attacker, at least in principle, to evade the defender's detection models. In this paper, we present a framework for characterizing the evasion and counter-evasion interactions between the attacker and the defender, where the attacker attempts to evade the defender's detection models by taking advantage of this symmetry. Within this framework, we show that an adaptive attacker can make malicious websites evade powerful detection models, but proactive training can be an effective counter-evasion defense mechanism. The framework is geared toward the popular detection model of decision tree, but can be adapted to accommodate other classifiers

    Differential Geometrical Formulation of Gauge Theory of Gravity

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    Differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied in this paper. The quantum gauge theory of gravity which is proposed in the references hep-th/0109145 and hep-th/0112062 is formulated completely in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. In order to study the relationship between quantum gauge theory of gravity and traditional quantum gravity which is formulated in curved space, it is important to find the differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity. We first give out the correspondence between quantum gauge theory of gravity and differential geometry. Then we give out differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity.Comment: 10 pages, no figur
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