3,894 research outputs found

    A possible solution of the grain boundary problem for applications of high-Tc superconductors

    Full text link
    It is shown that the critical current density of high-Tc wires can be greatly enhanced by using a threefold approach, which consists of grain alignment, doping, and optimization of the grain architecture. According to model calculations, current densities of 4x10^6 A/cm2 can be achieved for an average grain alignment of 10 degree at 77K. Based on this approach, a road to competitive high-Tc cables is proposed.Comment: 3 pages, 5 figure

    Sintering characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2—A study combining small angle neutron scattering and nitrogen absorption-BET

    Get PDF
    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was employed to characterize the pore structure of nanophase TiO2 ceramic materials compacted at different temperatures. Nanophase samples, produced by inert gas condensation, were compacted at 25, 290, 413, and 550 °C using a pressure of 1 GPa. The pore size distribution of the sample compacted at room temperature was very broad, with sizes ranging from 3-30 nm and pores comprising 38% of the sample volume. Compaction at 290 and 413 °C reduced the pore volume to 25% and 20%, respectively, by eliminating pores at both the small and large ends of the distribution. Compaction at 550 °C resulted in a pore volume that was less than 8%. Complications in the SANS analysis arising from the scattering from grain boundaries are discussed. The results from SANS are compared with those derived from nitrogen absorption, BET, measurement

    Magnetic microstructure of nanostructured Fe, studied by small angle neutron scattering

    Get PDF
    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was applied to achieve insight into the magnetic correlations in nanostructured Fe. The results confirm the expected microstructure involving ferromagnetic grains and a nonmagnetic or weakly magnetic interface region, the interfaces occupying about half the specimen volume. The SANS measurements further reveal that in nanostructured Fe the magnetic correlations are not confined to single grains, but are extended across the interfaces and result in the alignment of the magnetization over several hundreds of grains. An external field of 1.5 kOe is not sufficient for complete magnetic alignment of the entire specimen. However, the long-range magnetic correlations are considerably disturbed by this field. Reducing the external magnetic field to zero causes the magnetic correlations to resume microstructural characteristics similar to what they had in the original stat

    Substrate effect on the growth of iron clusters in Y zeolite

    Get PDF
    Investigation of the decomposition process and of the thermolytic products obtained from Fe(CO)5/faujasite adducts by thermogravimetric, IR-spectroscopic, Mössbauer spectroscopic and X-ray absorption measurements (EXAFS) provides evidence for a substrate effect on the growth process of iron clusters. CsY substrate increases the Fe---CO bond strength. The stabilized intermediates generated by this effect upon thermolysis at 500 K are easily oxidized to small iron(III) oxide clusters, whereas with NaY substrate to a large extent iron(O) particles are generated. The latter show Mössbauer effect and EXAFS spectra comparable to those obtained from bulk iron. An inner oxidation process is assumed to be involved in the generation of the zeolite-supported iron oxide

    A configuration system for the ATLAS trigger

    Full text link
    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz that have to be reduced to the few 100 Hz allowed by the storage systems. A three-level trigger system has been designed to achieve this goal. We describe the configuration system under construction for the ATLAS trigger chain. It provides the trigger system with all the parameters required for decision taking and to record its history. The same system configures the event reconstruction, Monte Carlo simulation and data analysis, and provides tools for accessing and manipulating the configuration data in all contexts.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, contribution to the Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP06), 13.-17. Feb 2006, Mumbai, Indi

    On the Nature of X-ray Variability in Ark 564

    Full text link
    We use data from a recent long ASCA observation of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Ark 564 to investigate in detail its timing properties. We show that a thorough analysis of the time series, employing techniques not generally applied to AGN light curves, can provide useful information to characterize the engines of these powerful sources.We searched for signs of non-stationarity in the data, but did not find strong evidences for it. We find that the process causing the variability is very likely nonlinear, suggesting that variability models based on many active regions, as the shot noise model, may not be applicable to Ark 564. The complex light curve can be viewed, for a limited range of time scales, as a fractal object with non-trivial fractal dimension and statistical self-similarity. Finally, using a nonlinear statistic based on the scaling index as a tool to discriminate time series, we demonstrate that the high and low count rate states, which are indistinguishable on the basis of their autocorrelation, structure and probability density functions, are intrinsically different, with the high state characterized by higher complexity.Comment: 13 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Heat Attenuation and Nutrient Delivery by Localized Upwelling Avoided Coral Bleaching Mortality in Northern Galapagos During 2015/2016 ENSO

    Get PDF
    Despite a very strong El Niño Southern Oscillation in 2015/2016, no coral mortality associated with bleaching was observed at the northern Galapagos (Ecuador) Islands of Darwin and Wolf. From March 2016 to March 2018, coral cover and health as well as water chemistry (NO3− and PO43−) and temperature were recorded. A marked heat anomaly reached 30 °C at Wolf in February 2016, but peak temperatures were attenuated after 2 d by a 4 °C drop. Temperature patterns at three depths (10, 15, and 20 m) and a subsequent and persistent phytoplankton bloom suggest topographically driven upwelling as the source of colder water and dissolved inorganic nutrients—both of which helped corals endure the heating episode. Consequently, no mortality and only partial bleaching were recorded in March 2016. Partially bleached corals contained numerous healthy zooxanthellae in deeper tissue layers. A continuous temperature record from 2012 to 2014 suggests that such upwelling events are common, inducing temperature fluctuations of up to 6 °C within 24 h during the observation period. Events at Wolf in 2016 suggest local upwelling reduced coral stress by relieving heat and by delivering nutrients required by corals to retain their regular temperature tolerance

    Ontogeny of synaptophysin and synaptoporin in the central nervous system

    Get PDF
    The expression of the synaptic vesicle antigens synaptophysin (SY) and synaptoporin (SO) was studied in the rat striatum, which contains a nearly homogeneous population of GABAergic neurons. In situ hybridization revealed high levels of SY transcripts in the striatal anlage from embryonic day (E) 14 until birth. In contrast. SO hybridization signals were low, and no immunoreactive cell bodies were detected at these stages of development. At E 14, SY-immunoreactivity was restricted to perikarya. In later prenatal stages of development SY-immunoreactivity appeared in puncta (identified as terminals containing immunostained synaptic vesicles), fibers, thick fiber bundles and ‘patches’. In postnatal and adult animals, perikarya of striatal neurons exhibited immunoreaction for SO; ultrastructurally SO antigen was found in the Golgi apparatus and in multivesicular bodies. SO-positive boutons were rare in the striatum. In the neuropil, numerous presynaptic terminals positive for SY were observed. Our data indicate that the expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in GABAergic neurons of the striatum is developmentally regulated. Whereas SY is prevalent during embryonic development, SO is the major synaptic vesicle antigen expressed postnatally by striatal neurons which project to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. In contrast synapses of striatal afferents (predominantly from cortex, thalamus and substantia nigra) contain SY
    • …