436 research outputs found

    Deeper Roots: Strengthening Community Tenure Security and Community Livelihoods

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    Utilizes concrete experiences from Bolivia, Colombia, Brazil, South Africa, Tanzania, India, Nepal, Indonesia, and the Philippines to highlight emerging issues, and offers strategies for advancing community forest tenure security

    Povratak ÔÇ×univerzalne knji┼żniceÔÇť u digitalnom obliku (EN)

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    This paper begins with two contemporary technological developments both of which present a serious challenge to the dominance in literature and learning of the book in its codex form. While their earlier manifestations were not commercially successful, the most recent e-book readers (portable technological contraptions that have the capacity to store thousands of books that can be read electronically) have been praised not only for their functionality but also for their aesthetic appeal. A related development has been the growth of large-scale digital libraries, the most prominent of which is the Google Books Library Project, launched in 2004 and now committed to the digitisation of around 15 million volumes or 4.5 billion pages in the following six years from some of the worldÔÇÖs leading academic libraries. The purpose of this paper is to explore these developments within the context of ancient and Enlightenment ideas about the ÔÇśuniversal libraryÔÇÖ which assert that the construction of such an institution is the most effective way of promoting universal knowledge. Rather than employing a kind of technological determinism that renders these technologies as merely points along an inexorable continuum of progress, it will be argued that they are the latest manifestation of an idea that long pre-dated digital technology. Over two millennia ago, the Ptolemies attempted to collect the entire corpus of literature in the Greek language as well as significant works in other languages. Many have argued that the institution that held these huge collections, the library at Alexandria, was effectively the worldÔÇÖs first universal library. Even though this library was eventually destroyed, the idea of universalism survived and flourished again during the European Enlightenment, through DiderotÔÇÖs Encyclop├ędie project and the construction of national libraries and archives. Latterly, the creation of the World Wide Web is conceived of by some as the apotheosis of the universalism of knowledge. Not everyone is convinced, though, that the attainment of universal knowledge is possible. And, ironically, the most powerful arguments against universalism emanate from a medium whose existential status is most threatened by this idea and its accompanying technologies: the codex book. Despite our technological sophistication, it seems that literature is still able to give us much richer insights into the nature of contemporary society than other forms of media. This paper will illustrate this through the writings of Jorge Luis Borges, Jonathan Swift, Jean Paul Sartre, Washington Irving and Gustave Flaubert, who in their various ways demonstrate the epistemological impossibility of obtaining total knowledge in any intellectual discipline, parody the insane search for it and muse on the tension between canonicity and universalism. These issues are particularly pertinent in an age where the virtualization of text has seemingly rendered obsolete some of the practical obstacles to the universal library and offer a sophisticated rejoinder to those cyber-utopians who have heralded the imminent arrival of universal knowledge via the World Wide Web. ┬á Keywords:the Enlightenment; universal library; World Wide Web; universal knowledge; canonicity; archives; positivismRadnja po─Źinje propitkivanjem dviju tehnoloških inovacija koje dovode u pitanje dominaciju knjige u obliku kodeksa kako u polju knji┼żevnog stvaralaštva i nakladništva, tako i u procesu u─Źenja. Iako po─Źeci e-knjige nisu bili komercijalno uspješni i isplativi, najnoviji e-─Źita─Źi (prijenosni ure─Ĺaji s mogu─çnoš─çu pohrane tisu─ça knjiga u digitalnom obliku) hvaljeni su ne tek poradi funkcionalnosti ve─ç i zbog svojih estetskih obilje┼żja. Usporedno s tehnološkim razvojem ─Źita─Źa rasla je i brojnost naslova kojima se mo┼że pristupiti u digitalnim knji┼żnicama, od kojih je najpoznatija Google Books Library Project. Pokrenuta je 2004. godine, a cilj joj je digitalizirati otprilike 15 milijuna svezaka ili 4,5 bilijuna stranica u sljede─çih šest godina, usredoto─Źuju─çi se i na gra─Ĺu pohranjenu u nekim od vode─çih svjetskih sveu─Źilišnih knji┼żnica.Cilj je radnje propitati navedene inovacije u kontekstu anti─Źkih i prosvjetiteljskih ideja o tzv. univerzalnoj knji┼żnici, koje pretpostavljaju da bi stvaranje takve knji┼żnice bila naju─Źinkovitija promocija sveobuhvatnoga, univerzalnog znanja. Umjesto prihva─çanja svojevrsnoga tehnološkog determinizma, prema kojem bi se novije tehnološke inovacije u podru─Źju knjige i ─Źitanja mogle pojmiti tek kao razvojni korak u nezaustavljivom kontinuumu napretka, u ovoj se radnji e-knjige i digitalne knji┼żnice promatraju kao najnovije manifestacije davnašnje ideje, nastale u doba kada tehnološkog razvoja u suvremenom smislu rije─Źi nije ni bilo. Prije više od dva tisu─çlje─ça, Ptolemejevi─çi su ┼żeljeli prikupiti cjeloviti korpus tekstova pisanih gr─Źkim jezikom, kao i sva va┼żnija djela na drugim jezicima. Mnogi se autori sla┼żu da je Aleksandrijska knji┼żnica, institucija u kojoj su bile pohranjene te goleme zbirke, bila prva svjetska univerzalna knji┼żnica. Aleksandrijska je knji┼żnica razorena, no ideja univerzalne knji┼żnice pre┼żivjela je i ponovno procvala u razdoblju prosvjetiteljstva, kroz projekt Diderotove Encyclopédie i kroz otvaranje nacionalnih knji┼żnica i arhiva. Naposljetku, pojedinci su stvaranje World Wide Weba do┼żivjeli kao apoteozu univerzalizma ljudskoga znanja.Ipak nisu svi uvjereni da je mogu─çe dosegnuti univerzalno znanje. Ironi─Źno, najsna┼żniji argumenti protiv univerzalizma znanja potje─Źu iz medija koji je mo┼żda najugro┼żeniji tehnološkim razvojem: iz knjige u obliku kodeksa. Usprkos sofisticiranoj tehnologiji, ─Źini se da nam „klasi─Źna” literatura i dalje pru┼ża mnogo dublji uvid u procese suvremenog društva negoli ostali mediji. U ovoj ─çe radnji posljednja teza biti potkrijepljena navodima iz djela Jorgea Luisa Borgesa, Jonathana Swifta, Jeana Paula Sartrea, Washingtona Irvinga i Gustava Flauberta, autora koji na razli─Źite na─Źine dokazuju epistemološku nemogu─çnost dosizanja „totalnog” znanja u bilo kojoj intelektualnoj disciplini te unekoliko i ismijavaju paranoi─Źnu potragu za njim, i sami se nadahnjuju─çi tenzijama izme─Ĺu znanstvenog kanona s jedne i univerzalizma znanja s druge strane. Upravo su takve teme iznimno va┼żne u dobu u kojemu se ─Źini da je virtualizacijom teksta mogu─çe prevladati neke prakti─Źne zapreke u stvaranju univerzalne knji┼żnice, a njihova analiza nudi i odgovor onim cyber-utopistima koji su najavljivali siguran nastup univerzalnoga znanja zajedno s razvojem World Wide Weba

    Lost in translation? Theory, policy and practice in systems-based environmental approaches to obesity prevention in the Healthy Towns programme in England.

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    This paper explores how system-wide approaches to obesity prevention were 'theorised' and translated into practice in the 'Healthy Towns' programme implemented in nine areas in England. Semi-structured interviews with 20 informants, purposively selected to represent national and local programme development, management and delivery were undertaken. Results suggest that informants articulated a theoretical understanding of a system-wide approach to obesity prevention, but simplifying this complex task in the context of uncertainty over programme aims and objectives, and absence of a clear direction from the central government, resulted in local programmes relying on traditional multi-component approaches to programme delivery. The development of clear, practical guidance on implementation should form a central part of future system-wide approaches to obesity prevention

    A global fit of top quark effective theory to data

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    In this paper we present a global fit of beyond the Standard Model (BSM) dimension six operators relevant to the top quark sector to currently available data. Experimental measurements include parton-level top-pair and single top production from the LHC and the Tevatron. Higher order QCD corrections are modelled using differential and global K-factors, and we use novel fast-fitting techniques developed in the context of Monte Carlo event generator tuning to perform the fit. This allows us to provide new, fully correlated and model-independent bounds on new physics effects in the top sector from the most current direct hadron-collider measurements in light of the involved theoretical and experimental systematics. As a by-product, our analysis constitutes a proof-of-principle that fast fitting of theory to data is possible in the top quark sector, and paves the way for a more detailed analysis including top quark decays, detector corrections and precision observables.Comment: Additional references and preprint code added. Minor error in generation of plots fixed, no conclusions affecte

    Povratak ÔÇ×univerzalne knji┼żniceÔÇť u digitalnom obliku (EN)

    Get PDF
    This paper begins with two contemporary technological developments both of which present a serious challenge to the dominance in literature and learning of the book in its codex form. While their earlier manifestations were not commercially successful, the most recent e-book readers (portable technological contraptions that have the capacity to store thousands of books that can be read electronically) have been praised not only for their functionality but also for their aesthetic appeal. A related development has been the growth of large-scale digital libraries, the most prominent of which is the Google Books Library Project, launched in 2004 and now committed to the digitisation of around 15 million volumes or 4.5 billion pages in the following six years from some of the worldÔÇÖs leading academic libraries. The purpose of this paper is to explore these developments within the context of ancient and Enlightenment ideas about the ÔÇśuniversal libraryÔÇÖ which assert that the construction of such an institution is the most effective way of promoting universal knowledge. Rather than employing a kind of technological determinism that renders these technologies as merely points along an inexorable continuum of progress, it will be argued that they are the latest manifestation of an idea that long pre-dated digital technology. Over two millennia ago, the Ptolemies attempted to collect the entire corpus of literature in the Greek language as well as significant works in other languages. Many have argued that the institution that held these huge collections, the library at Alexandria, was effectively the worldÔÇÖs first universal library. Even though this library was eventually destroyed, the idea of universalism survived and flourished again during the European Enlightenment, through DiderotÔÇÖs Encyclop├ędie project and the construction of national libraries and archives. Latterly, the creation of the World Wide Web is conceived of by some as the apotheosis of the universalism of knowledge. Not everyone is convinced, though, that the attainment of universal knowledge is possible. And, ironically, the most powerful arguments against universalism emanate from a medium whose existential status is most threatened by this idea and its accompanying technologies: the codex book. Despite our technological sophistication, it seems that literature is still able to give us much richer insights into the nature of contemporary society than other forms of media. This paper will illustrate this through the writings of Jorge Luis Borges, Jonathan Swift, Jean Paul Sartre, Washington Irving and Gustave Flaubert, who in their various ways demonstrate the epistemological impossibility of obtaining total knowledge in any intellectual discipline, parody the insane search for it and muse on the tension between canonicity and universalism. These issues are particularly pertinent in an age where the virtualization of text has seemingly rendered obsolete some of the practical obstacles to the universal library and offer a sophisticated rejoinder to those cyber-utopians who have heralded the imminent arrival of universal knowledge via the World Wide Web. ┬á Keywords:the Enlightenment; universal library; World Wide Web; universal knowledge; canonicity; archives; positivismRadnja po─Źinje propitkivanjem dviju tehnoloških inovacija koje dovode u pitanje dominaciju knjige u obliku kodeksa kako u polju knji┼żevnog stvaralaštva i nakladništva, tako i u procesu u─Źenja. Iako po─Źeci e-knjige nisu bili komercijalno uspješni i isplativi, najnoviji e-─Źita─Źi (prijenosni ure─Ĺaji s mogu─çnoš─çu pohrane tisu─ça knjiga u digitalnom obliku) hvaljeni su ne tek poradi funkcionalnosti ve─ç i zbog svojih estetskih obilje┼żja. Usporedno s tehnološkim razvojem ─Źita─Źa rasla je i brojnost naslova kojima se mo┼że pristupiti u digitalnim knji┼żnicama, od kojih je najpoznatija Google Books Library Project. Pokrenuta je 2004. godine, a cilj joj je digitalizirati otprilike 15 milijuna svezaka ili 4,5 bilijuna stranica u sljede─çih šest godina, usredoto─Źuju─çi se i na gra─Ĺu pohranjenu u nekim od vode─çih svjetskih sveu─Źilišnih knji┼żnica.Cilj je radnje propitati navedene inovacije u kontekstu anti─Źkih i prosvjetiteljskih ideja o tzv. univerzalnoj knji┼żnici, koje pretpostavljaju da bi stvaranje takve knji┼żnice bila naju─Źinkovitija promocija sveobuhvatnoga, univerzalnog znanja. Umjesto prihva─çanja svojevrsnoga tehnološkog determinizma, prema kojem bi se novije tehnološke inovacije u podru─Źju knjige i ─Źitanja mogle pojmiti tek kao razvojni korak u nezaustavljivom kontinuumu napretka, u ovoj se radnji e-knjige i digitalne knji┼żnice promatraju kao najnovije manifestacije davnašnje ideje, nastale u doba kada tehnološkog razvoja u suvremenom smislu rije─Źi nije ni bilo. Prije više od dva tisu─çlje─ça, Ptolemejevi─çi su ┼żeljeli prikupiti cjeloviti korpus tekstova pisanih gr─Źkim jezikom, kao i sva va┼żnija djela na drugim jezicima. Mnogi se autori sla┼żu da je Aleksandrijska knji┼żnica, institucija u kojoj su bile pohranjene te goleme zbirke, bila prva svjetska univerzalna knji┼żnica. Aleksandrijska je knji┼żnica razorena, no ideja univerzalne knji┼żnice pre┼żivjela je i ponovno procvala u razdoblju prosvjetiteljstva, kroz projekt Diderotove Encyclopédie i kroz otvaranje nacionalnih knji┼żnica i arhiva. Naposljetku, pojedinci su stvaranje World Wide Weba do┼żivjeli kao apoteozu univerzalizma ljudskoga znanja.Ipak nisu svi uvjereni da je mogu─çe dosegnuti univerzalno znanje. Ironi─Źno, najsna┼żniji argumenti protiv univerzalizma znanja potje─Źu iz medija koji je mo┼żda najugro┼żeniji tehnološkim razvojem: iz knjige u obliku kodeksa. Usprkos sofisticiranoj tehnologiji, ─Źini se da nam „klasi─Źna” literatura i dalje pru┼ża mnogo dublji uvid u procese suvremenog društva negoli ostali mediji. U ovoj ─çe radnji posljednja teza biti potkrijepljena navodima iz djela Jorgea Luisa Borgesa, Jonathana Swifta, Jeana Paula Sartrea, Washingtona Irvinga i Gustava Flauberta, autora koji na razli─Źite na─Źine dokazuju epistemološku nemogu─çnost dosizanja „totalnog” znanja u bilo kojoj intelektualnoj disciplini te unekoliko i ismijavaju paranoi─Źnu potragu za njim, i sami se nadahnjuju─çi tenzijama izme─Ĺu znanstvenog kanona s jedne i univerzalizma znanja s druge strane. Upravo su takve teme iznimno va┼żne u dobu u kojemu se ─Źini da je virtualizacijom teksta mogu─çe prevladati neke prakti─Źne zapreke u stvaranju univerzalne knji┼żnice, a njihova analiza nudi i odgovor onim cyber-utopistima koji su najavljivali siguran nastup univerzalnoga znanja zajedno s razvojem World Wide Weba

    Modelling the transmission and persistence of African swine fever in wild boar in contrasting European scenarios

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    African swine fever (ASF) is a severe viral disease that is currently spreading among domestic pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in large areas of Eurasia. Wild boar play a key role in the spread of ASF, yet despite their significance, little is known about the key mechanisms that drive infection transmission and disease persistence. A mathematical model of the wild boar ASF system is developed that captures the observed drop in population density, the peak in infected density and the persistence of the virus observed in ASF outbreaks. The model results provide insight into the key processes that drive the ASF dynamics and show that environmental transmission is a key mechanism determining the severity of an infectious outbreak and that direct frequency dependent transmission and transmission from individuals that survive initial ASF infection but eventually succumb to the disease are key for the long-term persistence of the virus. By considering scenarios representative of Estonia and Spain we show that faster degradation of carcasses in Spain, due to elevated temperature and abundant obligate scavengers, may reduce the severity of the infectious outbreak. Our results also suggest that the higher underlying host density and longer breeding season associated with supplementary feeding leads to a more pronounced epidemic outbreak and persistence of the disease in the long-term. The model is used to assess disease control measures and suggests that a combination of culling and infected carcass removal is the most effective method to eradicate the virus without also eradicating the host population, and that early implementation of these control measures will reduce infection levels whilst maintaining a higher host population density and in some situations prevent ASF from establishing in a population.Xander OÔÇÖNeill was supported by The Maxwell Institute Graduate School in Analysis and its Applications, a Centre for Doctoral Training funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant EP/L016508/01), the Scottish Funding Council, Heriot-Watt University and the University of Edinburgh. The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of the COST Action ASF-STOP CA15116, from the MCIU project CGL2017-89866-R and support from Fundaci├│n Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Transici├│n Ecol├│gica.Peer reviewe
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