146 research outputs found

    Износ кругов из СТМ при зубошлифовании

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    The problems of increasing the efficiency of grinding highly precision gearwheels of the 3–4 degree of precision using superhard material tools are discussed. The efficiency of cubic boron nitride dish grinding wheels in various bonds has been studied. Recommendations how to use cubic boron nitride wheels in gear grinding are given

    Advances in the genetic classification of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Purpose of review Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an archetypal complex disease wherein disease risk and severity are, for the majority of patients, the product of interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors. We are in a period of unprecedented discovery with new large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) and accelerating discovery of risk genes. However, much of the observed heritability of ALS is undiscovered and we are not yet approaching elucidation of the total genetic architecture, which will be necessary for comprehensive disease subclassification. Recent findings We summarize recent developments and discuss the future. New machine learning models will help to address nonlinear genetic interactions. Statistical power for genetic discovery may be boosted by reducing the search-space using cell-specific epigenetic profiles and expanding our scope to include genetically correlated phenotypes. Structural variation, somatic heterogeneity and consideration of environmental modifiers represent significant challenges which will require integration of multiple technologies and a multidisciplinary approach, including clinicians, geneticists and pathologists. Summary The move away from fully penetrant Mendelian risk genes necessitates new experimental designs and new standards for validation. The challenges are significant, but the potential reward for successful disease subclassification is large-scale and effective personalized medicine

    Rare genetic variation in UNC13A may modify survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA Bank and all samples available underwent whole genome sequencing. A replication set from the Netherlands was used for validation. Sequences of candidate survival genes were extracted and variants passing quality control with a minor allele frequency ≤0.05 were selected for association testing. Analysis was by burden testing using SKAT. Candidate survival genes UNC13A, KIFAP3, and EPHA4 were tested for association in a UK sample comprising 25 short survivors and 25 long survivors. Results showed that only SNVs in UNC13A were associated with survival (p = 6.57 × 10−3). SNV rs10419420:G > A was found exclusively in long survivors (3/25) and rs4808092:G > A exclusively in short survivors (4/25). These findings were not replicated in a Dutch sample. In conclusion, population specific rare variants of UNC13A may modulate survival in ALS

    Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events

    Functional genomics analysis identifies T and NK cell activation as a driver of epigenetic clock progression

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    Background Epigenetic clocks use DNA methylation (DNAm) levels of specific sets of CpG dinucleotides to accurately predict individual chronological age. A popular application of these clocks is to explore whether the deviation of predicted age from chronological age is associated with disease phenotypes, where this deviation is interpreted as a potential biomarker of biological age. This wide application, however, contrasts with the limited insight in the processes that may drive the running of epigenetic clocks. Results We perform a functional genomics analysis on four epigenetic clocks, including Hannum's blood predictor and Horvath's multi-tissue predictor, using blood DNA methylome and transcriptome data from 3132 individuals. The four clocks result in similar predictions of individual chronological age, and their constituting CpGs are correlated in DNAm level and are enriched for similar histone modifications and chromatin states. Interestingly, DNAm levels of CpGs from the clocks are commonly associated with gene expression in trans. The gene sets involved are highly overlapping and enriched for T cell processes. Further analysis of the transcriptome and methylome of sorted blood cell types identifies differences in DNAm between naive and activated T and NK cells as a probable contributor to the clocks. Indeed, within the same donor, the four epigenetic clocks predict naive cells to be up to 40 years younger than activated cells. Conclusions The ability of epigenetic clocks to predict chronological age involves their ability to detect changes in proportions of naive and activated immune blood cells, an established feature of immuno-senescence. This finding may contribute to the interpretation of associations between clock-derived measures and age-related health outcomes.Molecular Epidemiolog

    Meta-analysis of pharmacogenetic interactions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clinical trials

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    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether genetic subgroups in recent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) trials responded to treatment with lithium carbonate, but that the treatment effect was lost in a large cohort of nonresponders. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from 3 randomized trials investigating the efficacy of lithium carbonate. We matched clinical data with data regarding the UNC13A and C9orf72 genotype. Our primary outcome was survival at 12 months. On an exploratory basis, we assessed whether the effect of lithium depended on the genotype. RESULTS: Clinical data were available for 518 of the 606 participants. Overall, treatment with lithium carbonate did not improve 12-month survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-1.4; p = 0.96). Both the UNC13A and C9orf72 genotype were independent predictors of survival (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3; p = 0.006 and HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.2; p = 0.032, respectively). The effect of lithium was different for UNC13A carriers (p = 0.027), but not for C9orf72 carriers (p = 0.22). The 12-month survival probability for UNC13A carriers treated with lithium carbonate improved from 40.1% (95% CI 23.2-69.1) to 69.7% (95% CI 50.4-96.3). CONCLUSIONS: This study incorporated genetic data into past ALS trials to determine treatment effects in a genetic post hoc analysis. Our results suggest that we should reorient our strategies toward finding treatments for ALS, start focusing on genotype-targeted treatments, and standardize genotyping in order to optimize randomization and analysis for future clinical trials

    Susceptible genes and disease mechanisms identified in frontotemporal dementia and frontotemporal dementia with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by DNA-methylation and GWAS.

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    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the frontal and temporal lobes. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on FTD identified only a few risk loci. One of the possible explanations is that FTD is clinically, pathologically, and genetically heterogeneous. An important open question is to what extent epigenetic factors contribute to FTD and whether these factors vary between FTD clinical subgroup. We compared the DNA-methylation levels of FTD cases (n = 128), and of FTD cases with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FTD-ALS; n = 7) to those of unaffected controls (n = 193), which resulted in 14 and 224 candidate genes, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed significant class separation of FTD-ALS from controls. We could further specify genes with increased susceptibility for abnormal gene-transcript behavior by jointly analyzing DNA-methylation levels with the presence of mutations in a GWAS FTD-cohort. For FTD-ALS, this resulted in 9 potential candidate genes, whereas for FTD we detected 1 candidate gene (ELP2). Independent validation-sets confirmed the genes DLG1, METTL7A, KIAA1147, IGHMBP2, PCNX, UBTD2, WDR35, and ELP2/SLC39A6 among others. We could furthermore demonstrate that genes harboring mutations and/or displaying differential DNA-methylation, are involved in common pathways, and may therefore be critical for neurodegeneration in both FTD and FTD-ALS

    A replication study of genetic risk loci for ischemic stroke in a Dutch population: A case-control study

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    We aimed to replicate reported associations of 10 SNPs at eight distinct loci with overall ischemic stroke (IS) and its subtypes in an independent cohort of Dutch IS patients. We included 1,375 IS patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter hospital-based cohort in the Netherlands, and 1,533 population-level controls of Dutch descent. We tested these SNPs for association with overall IS and its subtypes (large artery atherosclerosis, small vessel disease and cardioembolic stroke (CE), as classified by TOAST) using an additive multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for age and sex. We obtained odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the risk allele of each SNP analyzed and exact p-values by permutation. We confirmed the association at 4q25 (PITX2) (OR 1.43; 95% CI, 1.13-1.81, p = 0.029) and 16q22 (ZFHX3) (OR 1.62; 95% CI, 1.26-2.07, p = 0.001) as risk loci for CE. Locus 16q22 was also associated with overall IS (OR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.42, p = 0.016). Other loci previously associated with IS and/or its subtypes were not confirmed. In conclusion, we validated two loci (4q25, 16q22) associated with CE. In addition, our study may suggest that the association of locus 16q22 may not be limited to CE, but also includes overall IS

    Genome-wide identification of genes regulating DNA methylation using genetic anchors for causal inference

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    BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in human development and disease, yet there is limited understanding of its highly coordinated regulation. Here, we identify 818 genes that affect DNA methylation patterns in blood using large-scale population genomics data. RESULTS: By employing genetic instruments as causal anchors, we establish directed associations between gene expression and distant DNA methylation levels, while ensuring specificity of the associations by correcting for linkage disequilibrium and pleiotropy among neighboring genes. The identified genes are enriched for transcription factors, of which many consistently increased or decreased DNA methylation levels at multiple CpG sites. In addition, we show that a substantial number of transcription factors affected DNA methylation at their experimentally determined binding sites. We also observe genes encoding proteins with heterogenous functions that have widespread effects on DNA methylation, e.g., NFKBIE, CDCA7(L), and NLRC5, and for several examples, we suggest plausible mechanisms underlying their effect on DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: We report hundreds of genes that affect DNA methylation and provide key insights in the principles underlying epigenetic regulation
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