156 research outputs found

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and the sirtuins caution: Pro-cancer functions

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    This scoping review aims to perform a brief but comprehensive assessment of existing peer-reviewed literature and determine whether raising nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide can prevent or promote tumorigenesis. The examination of extensive peer-reviewed data regarding the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has been performed with a focus on nuclear dynamics and the deoxyribose nucleic acid repair pathway. Various enzymatic protective functions have been identified from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels, as well as the threat role that is also explored. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide precursors and sirtuin-activating compounds are becoming ubiquitous in the commercial market. Further research into whether elevating levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or overexpression of sirtuins can increase the potential for neoplasm or other age-related pathophysiology is warranted due to the high energy requirements of certain diseases such as cancer

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell differentiation toward myogenic lineages: Facts and perspectives

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    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are valuable platforms for new therapies based on regenerative medicine. BM-MSCs era is coming of age since the potential of these cells is increasingly demonstrated. In fact, these cells give origin to osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocyte precursors in vitro, and they can also differentiate versus other mesodermal cell types like skeletal muscle precursors and cardiomyocytes. In our short review, we focus on the more recent manipulations of BM-MSCs toward skeletal and heart muscle differentiation, a growing field of obvious relevance considering the toll of muscle disease (i.e., muscular dystrophies), the heavier toll of heart disease in developed countries, and the still not completely understood mechanisms of muscle differentiation and repair

    Could Physical Activity Have any Role in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Prisoners? A Systematic Review.

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    More than 10.74 million people are currently held in penal institutions worldwide. Moreover, there is also evidence that the percentage of elder and female prisoners has been consistently growing. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Exercise training and physical activity help to prevent both primary and secondary cardiovascular events. Data on the influence of physical activity on the well-being in prison population is scarce. Here, we discussed, in a systematic review, the general health conditions and the cardiovascular risk profile in the prisoners compared to the general population and evaluated whether or not exercise could be a valuable tool in preventing these diseases in inmates. We performed a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement: 769 were initially identified, and a total of 24 studies were finally included. Nine studies evaluated the health conditions in prisoners, five studies evaluated the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the prison population, and 10 studies evaluated the feasibility and the effectiveness of exercise programs in prisoners. Sports-educational programs can benefit prison inmates. It appears that supervised exercise training is an effective coping strategy to deal with incarceration. Moreover, it seems the sports programs might be a useful tool in improving physical and mental health of prisoners as well as in decreasing cardiovascular risk factors

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL): a potential candidate for combined treatment of hematological malignancies.

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    Inflammation and Cardiovascular Cross Talk in Ischemic Vascular Diseases

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    Ischemic vascular diseases include different pathological events characterized by distinctive features but share the common hallmark of inflammation. In this light, myocardial infarction can be a good paradigm to summarize the different connections linking inflammation and the cardiovascular system during an ischemic event. The immune system and inflammation, through several cellular and soluble inflammatory mediators, play a crucial role in the local tissue structural changes of ischemic heart disease, with a different impact and outcome during acute myocardial infarction compared to the more chronic long-term inflammation. In response to acute damage and hemodynamic stress, there is expansion of resident immune cells and recruitment of extra cells involved in a critical cross talk with parenchymal cells. In other words, postischemic tissue repair is crucial to survival. Recruited inflammatory cells can remove debris and facilitate the repair process; conversely, unrestrained inflammation inhibits optimal healing leading to adverse events. Moreover, other mediators such as some key coagulation factors might influence innate immunity as well as cell-mediated reactions like healing, response to tissue injury, or inflammatory processes. Overall, as recently suggested, the different immune/inflammatory cell subsets act as messengers implicated in novel inflammatory networks that link different organ systems enlarging the continuum beyond the myocardium and blood vessels in a more integrative pathophysiology standpoint. This special issue aims to collect insights about this cross talk with a dual purpose: on the one hand to expand the comprehension on the mechanisms of action and impact of “old” inflammatory mediators and on the other to bring out “new” potential pathways and intermediates. The overall aim is to increase knowledge on the pathophysiological processes of ischemic vascular disease to improve diagnosis and treatment

    Cyclopes and giants: ancient mythological figures through an anatomical and palæopathological lens

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    This paper examines the origin of the myths about giants and cyclopes from the palæontological and palæopathological perspectives, highlighting how much more attention should be devoted to the possibility that a pituitary condition may have indeed played a role in the mythopoietic process

    Physical Exercise and Appetite Regulation: New Insights

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    Physical exercise is considered an important physiological intervention able to prevent cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and obesity-related cardiometabolic imbalance. Nevertheless, basic molecular mechanisms that govern the metabolic benefits of physical exercise are poorly understood. Recent data unveil new mechanisms that potentially explain the link between exercise, feeding suppression, and obesity
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