227 research outputs found

    The flow back tracing and DDoS defense mechanism of the TWAREN defender cloud

    Get PDF
    The TWAREN Defender Cloud is a distributed filter platform on thenetwork backbone to help defending our connecting institutions against maliciousnetwork attacks. By combining the security reports from participating schools, thissystem can block the incoming threats from the entry points, thus it helps protectingall connecting institutions in the most economic and effective way. This paper aimedat explaining the analyzer design, its mechanism to back trace DDoS attack flows totheir entry points and the defense mechanism it provides to block the threats

    Excitatory and inhibitory D-serine binding to the NMDA receptor

    Get PDF
    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) uniquely require binding of two different neurotransmitter agonists for synaptic transmission. D-serine and glycine bind to one subunit, GluN1, while glutamate binds to the other, GluN2. These agonists bind to the receptor's bi-lobed ligand-binding domains (LBDs), which close around the agonist during receptor activation. To better understand the unexplored mechanisms by which D-serine contributes to receptor activation, we performed multi-microsecond molecular dynamics simulations of the GluN1/GluN2A LBD dimer with free D-serine and glutamate agonists. Surprisingly, we observed D-serine binding to both GluN1 and GluN2A LBDs, suggesting that D-serine competes with glutamate for binding to GluN2A. This mechanism is confirmed by our electrophysiology experiments, which show that D-serine is indeed inhibitory at high concentrations. Although free energy calculations indicate that D-serine stabilizes the closed GluN2A LBD, its inhibitory behavior suggests that it either does not remain bound long enough or does not generate sufficient force for ion channel gating. We developed a workflow using pathway similarity analysis to identify groups of residues working together to promote binding. These conformation-dependent pathways were not significantly impacted by the presence of N-linked glycans, which act primarily by interacting with the LBD bottom lobe to stabilize the closed LBD

    Comparison of different gene-therapy methods to treat Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in a mouse model

    Get PDF
    IntroductionTherapies for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), in common with all disorders caused by mutated mitochondrial DNA, are inadequate. We have developed two gene therapy strategies for the disease: mitochondrial-targeted and allotopic expressed and compared them in a mouse model of LHON.MethodsA LHON mouse model was generated by intravitreal injection of a mitochondrialtargeted Adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying mutant human NADH dehydrogenase 4 gene (hND4/m.11778G>A) to induce retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and axon loss, the hallmark of the human disease. We then attempted to rescue those mice using a second intravitreal injection of either mitochondrial-targeted or allotopic expressed wildtype human ND4. The rescue of RGCs and their axons were assessed using serial pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and transmission electron microscopy.ResultsCompared to non-rescued LHON controls where PERG amplitude was much reduced, both strategies significantly preserved PERG amplitude over 15 months. However, the rescue effect was more marked with mitochondrial-targeted therapy than with allotopic therapy (p = 0.0128). Post-mortem analysis showed that mitochondrial-targeted human ND4 better preserved small axons that are preferentially lost in human LHON.ConclusionsThese results in a pre-clinical mouse model of LHON suggest that mitochondrially-targeted AAV gene therapy, compared to allotopic AAV gene therapy, is more efficient in rescuing the LHON phenotype

    Accumulator pricing

    Get PDF
    Accumulator is a highly path dependant derivative structure that has been introduced as a retail financial product in recent years and becomes very popular in some Asian cities with its speculative nature. Despite its popularity, its pricing formula is not well known especially when there is a barrier structure. When the barrier in an accumulator contract is applied continuously, this paper obtains exact analytic pricing formulae for immediate settlement and for delay settlement. For discrete barrier, we also obtain analytic formulae which can approximate the fair price of an accumulator under both settlement methods. Through Monte Carlo simulation, we show that the approximation is highly satisfactory. With price formulae in close forms, this paper further explains how to price the product fairly to fit into its zero-cost structure. The analytic formulae also help in computing the Greeks of an accumulator which are documented in this paper. An asymmetry can be observed here that when the buyer is suffering a loss, risk characteristics like delta and vega are substantially larger than when the buyer is enjoying a profit. This means that losing buyers will be more vulnerable to price changes and volatility changes than winning buyers. This is consistent with another observation in the paper that the value at risk for the buyer can be several times larger than that of the seller. © 2009 IEEE.published_or_final_versionThe IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Financial Engineering (CIFEr) 2009, Nashville, TN., 30 March-2 April 2009. In Proceedings of the CIFEr, 2009, p. 72-7

    Crystal Structure of the Open State of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE Outer Membrane Channel

    Get PDF
    Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel

    Measurement of the Top Pair Production Cross Section in the Dilepton Decay Channel in ppbar Collisions at sqrt s = 1.96 TeV

    Get PDF
    Submitted to Phys. Rev. DA measurement of the \ttbar production cross section in \ppbar collisions at s\sqrt{{\rm s}} = 1.96 TeV using events with two leptons, missing transverse energy, and jets is reported. The data were collected with the CDF II Detector. The result in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity 2.8 fb−1^{-1} is: \sigma_{\ttbar} = 6.27 ±\pm 0.73(stat) ±\pm 0.63(syst) ±\pm 0.39(lum) pb. for an assumed top mass of 175 GeV/c2c^{2}.A measurement of the tt̅ production cross section in pp̅ collisions at √s=1.96  TeV using events with two leptons, missing transverse energy, and jets is reported. The data were collected with the CDF II detector. The result in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity 2.8  fb-1 is σtt̅ =6.27±0.73(stat)±0.63(syst)±0.39(lum)  pb. for an assumed top mass of 175  GeV/c2.Peer reviewe
    • …