27 research outputs found

    Driving performance in older adults: Current measures, findings, and implications for roadway safety

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Over 10,000 people a day turn 65 in the United States. For many older adults, driving represents an essential component of independence and is one of the most important factors in overall mobility. Recent survey studies in older adults suggest that up to 60% of older adult drivers with mild cognitive impairment, and up to 30% with dementia, continue to drive. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive and detailed resource on the topics of cognition and driving for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers working on efforts related to older adult drivers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Publications on PubMed and Medline and discussions with experts working in geriatrics, technology, driving policy, psychology, and diverse aspects of driving performance were utilized to inform the current review. RESULTS: Research indicates that there is a complex and inverse correlation between multiple cognitive measures, driving performance, and risky driving behaviors. The fragmented nature of available peer-reviewed literature, and a reliance on correlative data, do not currently allow for the identification of the temporal and reciprocal nature of the interplay between cognition and driving endpoints. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: There are currently no widely accepted definitions, conceptual models, or uniform set of analyses for conducting geriatric research that is focused on driving. Establishing conventions for conducting research that harmonizes the fields of geriatrics, cognition, and driving research is critical for the development of the evidence base that will inform clinical practice and road safety policy

    A study of three paradigms for storing geospatial data: distributed-cloud model, relational database, and indexed flat file

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    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related applications of geospatial data were once a small software niche; today nearly all Internet and mobile users utilize some sort of mapping or location-aware software. This widespread use reaches beyond mere consumption of geodata; projects like OpenStreetMap (OSM) represent a new source of geodata production, sometimes dubbed “Volunteered Geographic Information.” The volume of geodata produced and the user demand for geodata will surely continue to grow, so the storage and query techniques for geospatial data must evolve accordingly. This thesis compares three paradigms for systems that manage vector data. Over the past few decades these methodologies have fallen in and out of favor. Today, some are considered new and experimental (distributed), others nearly forgotten (flat file), and others are the workhorse of present-day GIS (relational database). Each is well-suited to some use cases, and poorly-suited to others. This thesis investigates exemplars of each paradigm

    Retrogenes Reveal the Direction of Sex-Chromosome Evolution in Mosquitoes

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    Precision [bar over v][subscript e]-electron scattering measurements with IsoDAR to search for new physics

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    IsoDAR provides a pure and intense [bar over v][subscript e] source with an average energy of 6.5 MeV produced through [superscript 8]Li β decay. This source can be paired with a large scintillator detector, such as KamLAND, to produce a sample of [bar over v][subscript e]-electron scatters that is more than 5 times larger than what has been collected before. Such a sample would allow for a 3.2% measurement of sin[superscript 2]θ[subscript W] and a sensitive search for nonstandard interactions.National Science Foundation (U.S.

    Mars Surface Habitability Options

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    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies

    A designer ligand specific for Kv1.3 channels from a scorpion neurotoxin-based library

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    Venomous animals immobilize prey using protein toxins that act on ion channels and other targets of biological importance. Broad use of toxins for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy has been limited by inadequate target discrimination, for example, among ion channel subtypes. Here, a synthetic toxin is produced by a new strategy to be specific for human Kv1.3 channels, critical regulators of immune T cells. A phage display library of 11,200 de novo proteins is designed using the α-KTx scaffold of 31 scorpion toxin sequences known or predicted to bind to potassium channels. Mokatoxin-1 (moka1) is isolated by affinity selection on purified target. Moka1 blocks Kv1.3 at nanomolar levels that do not inhibit Kv1.1, Kv1.2, or KCa1.1. As a result, moka1 suppresses CD3/28-induced cytokine secretion by T cells without cross-reactive gastrointestinal hyperactivity. The 3D structure of moka1 rationalizes its specificity and validates the engineering approach, revealing a unique interaction surface supported on an α-KTx scaffold. This scaffold-based/target-biased strategy overcomes many obstacles to production of selective toxins
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