60,088 research outputs found

    Carrier States and Ferromagnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Full text link
    Applying the dynamical coherent potential approximation to a simple model, we have systematically studied the carrier states in A1xA_{1-x}MnxB_xB-type diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS's). The model calculation was performed for three typical cases of DMS's: The cases with strong and moderate exchange interactions in the absence of nonmagnetic potentials, and the case with strong attractive nonmagnetic potentials in addition to moderate exchange interaction. When the exchange interaction is sufficiently strong, magnetic impurity bands split from the host band. Carriers in the magnetic impurity band mainly stay at magnetic sites, and coupling between the carrier spin and the localized spin is very strong. The hopping of the carriers among the magnetic sites causes ferromagnetism through a {\it double-exchange (DE)-like} mechanism. We have investigated the condition for the DE-like mechanism to operate in DMS's. The result reveals that the nonmagnetic attractive potential at the magnetic site assists the formation of the magnetic impurity band and makes the DE-like mechanism operative by substantially enhancing the effect of the exchange interaction. Using conventional parameters we have studied the carrier states in Ga1x_{1-x}Mnx_xAs. The result shows that the ferromagnetism is caused through the DE-like mechanism by the carriers in the bandtail originating from the impurity states.Comment: 20 pages, 14 figure

    Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino: inverted mass hierarchy

    Full text link
    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m3m1<m2m_{3} \ll m_{1} < m_{2}) as well as the normal mass hierarchy (m1<m2m3m_{1} < m_{2} \ll m_{3}). Numerical analysis using a realistic supernova and presupernova model allows us to discuss quantitatively a possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that information about the mass hierarchy can be obtained if θ13\theta_{13} is rather large (sin22θ13>103\sin^{2}{2 \theta_{13}} > 10^{-3}) and that θ13\theta_{13} can be well probed by SuperKamiokande if the neutrino mass hierarchy is the inverted case. Errors due to the uncertainty of the original neutrino spectra and the Earth effect are also discussed.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, significantly revised. Published version in PT

    Nuclear Astrophysics

    Get PDF
    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding some of the many facets of the Universe through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other sub-fields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Many long-standing problems remain to be solved, however, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endanger old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics.Comment: LaTeX2e with iopart.cls, 84 pages, 19 figures (graphicx package), 374 updated references. Published in Reports on Progress in Physics, vol.62, pp. 395-464 (1999

    On a Periodic Soliton Cellular Automaton

    Full text link
    We propose a box and ball system with a periodic boundary condition (pBBS). The time evolution rule of the pBBS is represented as a Boolean recurrence formula, an inverse ultradiscretization of which is shown to be equivalent with the algorithm of the calculus for the 2Nth root. The relations to the pBBS of the combinatorial R matrix of Uq(AN(1)){U'}_q(A_N^{(1)}) are also discussed.Comment: 17 pages, 5 figure

    Preliminary study of a wing-tip vortex using laser velocimetry

    Get PDF
    Measurements have been made in the wake of a semi-span NACA 0015 airfoil with emphasis on the region of the wing tip vortex. The spanwise and streamwise velocity components were measured using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The purpose of the study was to initiate the operation of a laser velocimeter system and to perform preliminary wake measurements in preparation for a more extensive study of the structure and near field development of a tip vortex

    Monte Carlo Simulations of Globular Cluster Evolution - II. Mass Spectra, Stellar Evolution and Lifetimes in the Galaxy

    Get PDF
    We study the dynamical evolution of globular clusters using our new 2-D Monte Carlo code, and we calculate the lifetimes of clusters in the Galactic environment. We include the effects of a mass spectrum, mass loss in the Galactic tidal field, and stellar evolution. We consider initial King models containing N = 10^5 - 3x10^5 stars, and follow the evolution up to core collapse, or disruption, whichever occurs first. We find that the lifetimes of our models are significantly longer than those obtained using 1-D Fokker-Planck (F-P) methods. We also find that our results are in very good agreement with recent 2-D F-P calculations, for a wide range of initial conditions. Our results show that the direct mass loss due to stellar evolution can significantly accelerate the mass loss through the tidal boundary, causing most clusters with a low initial central concentration (Wo <~ 3) to disrupt quickly in the Galactic tidal field. Only clusters born with high initial central concentrations (Wo >~ 7) or steep initial mass functions are likely to survive to the present and undergo core collapse. We also study the orbital characteristics of escaping stars, and find that the velocity distribution of escaping stars in collapsing clusters looks significantly different from the distribution in disrupting clusters. We calculate the lifetime of a cluster on an eccentric orbit in the Galaxy, such that it fills its Roche lobe only at perigalacticon. We find that such an orbit can extend the lifetime by at most a factor of a few compared to a circular orbit in which the cluster fills its Roche lobe at all times.Comment: 32 pages, including 10 figures, to appear in ApJ, minor corrections onl

    Boltzmann expansion in a radiofrequency conical helicon thruster operating in xenon and argon

    Get PDF
    A low pressure (~ 0.5 mTorr in xenon and ~ 1 mTorr in argon) Boltzmann expansion is experimentally observed on axis within a magnetized (60 to 180 G) radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) conical helicon thruster for input powers up to 900 W using plasma parameters measured with a Langmuir probe. The axial forces, respectively, resulting from the electron and magnetic field pressures are directly measured using a thrust balance for constant maximum plasma pressure and show a higher fuel efficiency for argon compared to xenon

    Cold r-Process in Neutrino-Driven Winds

    Full text link
    The r-process in a low temperature environment is explored, in which the neutron emission by photodisintegration does not play a role (cold r-process). A semi-analytic neutrino-driven wind model is utilized for this purpose. The temperature in a supersonically expanding outflow can quickly drop to a few 10^8 K, where the (n, gamma)-(gamma, n) equilibrium is never achieved during the heavy r-nuclei synthesis. In addition, the neutron capture competes with the beta-decay owing to the low matter density. Despite such non-standard physical conditions for the cold r-process, a solar-like r-process abundance curve can be reproduced. The cold r-process predicts, however, the low lead production compared to that expected in the traditional r-process conditions, which can be a possible explanation for the low lead abundances found in a couple of r-process-rich Galactic halo stars.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
    corecore