58,154 research outputs found

    The Role of Nonhydrodynamic Modes in Bjorken Flow

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    Soft Contextualism in the Context of Religious Language

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    When trying to do justice to the discourse of a certain religion it is often implicitly assumed that one’s analysis should accord with and respect the opinions held by the people preaching and practicing that religion. One reason for this assumption may be the acceptance of a more general thesis, that adherents of a given religious tradition cannot fail to know the proper content and function of the language and concepts constitutive of it. In this article, the viability of this thesis is explored through an investigation of the extent to which people belonging to a certain religion may be in error about what they mean. I assume that people, if mistaken, are wrong according to a standard which is mind-dependent enough for them to be committed and accountable to it but, at the same time, mind-independent enough for them to be mistaken about it. I try to account for this delicate balance by identifying the standard with a social norm, a mind-independent object of worship or people’s in

    Young researchers of the Barents Region

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    Approximating ATSP by Relaxing Connectivity

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    The standard LP relaxation of the asymmetric traveling salesman problem has been conjectured to have a constant integrality gap in the metric case. We prove this conjecture when restricted to shortest path metrics of node-weighted digraphs. Our arguments are constructive and give a constant factor approximation algorithm for these metrics. We remark that the considered case is more general than the directed analog of the special case of the symmetric traveling salesman problem for which there were recent improvements on Christofides' algorithm. The main idea of our approach is to first consider an easier problem obtained by significantly relaxing the general connectivity requirements into local connectivity conditions. For this relaxed problem, it is quite easy to give an algorithm with a guarantee of 3 on node-weighted shortest path metrics. More surprisingly, we then show that any algorithm (irrespective of the metric) for the relaxed problem can be turned into an algorithm for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem by only losing a small constant factor in the performance guarantee. This leaves open the intriguing task of designing a "good" algorithm for the relaxed problem on general metrics.Comment: 25 pages, 2 figures, fixed some typos in previous versio

    Hardness of Vertex Deletion and Project Scheduling

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    Assuming the Unique Games Conjecture, we show strong inapproximability results for two natural vertex deletion problems on directed graphs: for any integer k2k\geq 2 and arbitrary small ϵ>0\epsilon > 0, the Feedback Vertex Set problem and the DAG Vertex Deletion problem are inapproximable within a factor kϵk-\epsilon even on graphs where the vertices can be almost partitioned into kk solutions. This gives a more structured and therefore stronger UGC-based hardness result for the Feedback Vertex Set problem that is also simpler (albeit using the "It Ain't Over Till It's Over" theorem) than the previous hardness result. In comparison to the classical Feedback Vertex Set problem, the DAG Vertex Deletion problem has received little attention and, although we think it is a natural and interesting problem, the main motivation for our inapproximability result stems from its relationship with the classical Discrete Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem. More specifically, our results imply that the deadline version is NP-hard to approximate within any constant assuming the Unique Games Conjecture. This explains the difficulty in obtaining good approximation algorithms for that problem and further motivates previous alternative approaches such as bicriteria approximations.Comment: 18 pages, 1 figur