12 research outputs found

    Crescimento e tolerância de mudas de Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. cultivadas em solo contaminado com cobre

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    Copper (Cu) is a micronutrient necessary for plant development, as it is included in the structure of enzymatic compounds and activators. However, at high soil concentrations it can become toxic to plant metabolism. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and tolerance of Ilex paraguariensis seedlings grown in copper contaminated soil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Department of Forestry Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, Campus Frederico Westphalen, RS, between March and September 2018. The seedlings of Ilex paraguariensis used in the experiment were acquired from a nursery located in the municipality of Arvorezinha, RS. The treatments applied were five doses of Cu (0 - control, without addition of copper; 100; 200; 300 and 400 mg Kg-1 of soil). The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 10 replications, each repetition being one plant per pot. After exposure to different treatments under soil cultivation at 150 days, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, root, stem and leaf dry mass and tolerance index were evaluated. The results showed that the copper doses reduced the seedlings height and stem diameter. The dry mass of all collected partitions showed reduction from the use of 200 mg kg-1 of soil. The plants submitted to higher Cu (400 mg kg-1 soil) showed a reduction in leaf area of 64.7% in relation to the control. The species Ilex paraguariensis presented a tolerance index higher than 60% up to 300 mg kg-1 Cu.O cobre (Cu) é um micronutriente necessário ao desenvolvimento das plantas, pois está incluído na estrutura de compostos enzimáticos e ativadores. Contudo, em altas concentrações no solo pode se tornar tóxico ao metabolismo vegetal. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e tolerância de mudas de Ilex paraguariensis cultivadas em solo contaminado com cobre. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus de Frederico Westphalen, RS, entre os meses de março e setembro de 2018. As mudas de Ilex paraguariensis utilizadas no experimento foram adquiridas de um viveiro localizado no município de Arvorezinha, RS. Os tratamentos aplicados foram cinco doses de Cu (0 - controle, sem adição de cobre; 100; 200; 300 e 400 mg Kg-1 de solo). O experimento foi implantado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 10 repetições, sendo cada repetição uma planta por vaso. Após a exposição aos diferentes tratamentos, sob cultivo em solo aos 150 dias, avaliou-se a altura de planta, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, massa seca de raiz, caule e folhas e índice de tolerância. Os resultados evidenciaram que as doses de cobre reduziram a altura e diâmetro de caule das mudas. A massa seca de todas as partições coletadas mostrou redução a partir da utilização de 200 mg kg-1 de solo. As plantas submetidas a maior dose de Cu (400 mg kg-1 de solo) apresentaram redução na área foliar de 64,7% em relação à testemunha. A espécie Ilex paraguariensis apresentou o índice de tolerância superior a 60% até a dose de 300 mg kg-1 de Cu

    Crescimento e tolerância de Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. inoculados com fungos ectomicorrízicos em solo contaminado com cobre

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    O cobre é um dos principais metais pesados contaminantes do solo. As plantas diferenciam-se quanto à sua tolerância e toxicidade, o que lhes permite crescer e produzir até mesmo em solos com altas concentrações. O trabalho objetivou determinar a influência do uso de fungos ectomicorrízicos no crescimento e tolerância de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) cultivadas em solo contaminado com cobre. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (4x6), sendo quatro inóculos: controle (sem inóculo) e três ectomicorrizas (UFSC-PT116 — Pisolithus microcarpus, UFSC-PT132 — Pisolithus tinctorius e UFSC-SU118 — Suillus cothurnatus) e seis doses de cobre adicionadas ao solo (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 e 400 mg kg-1), com sete repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do colo, massa seca da parte aérea e sistema radicular, área foliar, área superficial específica de raízes, teores de cobre na parte aérea e radicular, índice de tolerância e associação micorrízica. A inoculação de mudas de erva-mate com ectomicorrizas UFSC-PT116, UFSC-PT132 e UFSC-SU118 ameniza o efeito de fitotoxicidade provocado pelo excesso de cobre no solo. O isolado ectomicorrízico UFSC-PT116 promoveu os maiores crescimento e tolerância de mudas de erva-mate cultivadas em solo contaminado com cobre. Em geral, os isolados promoveram a redução da toxicidade do cobre nas plantas de Ilex paraguariensis, sendo uma alternativa interessante para a recuperação de áreas contaminadas com cobre.Copper (Cu) is one of the main heavy metals contaminating the soil. Plants have different behavior in terms of tolerance and toxicity to metals, being able to grow and produce even in soils contaminated with high concentrations. This study aimed to determine the influence of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the growth and tolerance of yerba mate plants grown in soil contaminated with Cu. The design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (4x6), with four possibilities of inoculum: without inoculum (control) and three ectomycorrhizal fungi (UFSC-PT116 — Pisolithus microcarpus, UFSC-PT132 — Pisolithus tinctorius and UFSC-SU118 — Suillus cothurnatus), with six Cu doses amended to the soil (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 mg kg-1 of Cu) in seven replicates. The height of the aerial part, the diameter of the lap, the dry mass of the aerial part and root system, the leaf area, the specific surface area of the roots, the contents of Cu in the aerial and radicular parts, the tolerance index, and mycorrhizal association were assessed. Inoculation of Ilex paraguariensis seedlings with ectomycorrhiza fungi UFSC-PT116, UFSC-PT132, and UFSC-SU118 mitigates the toxicity effect caused by the excess of Cu in the soil. The UFSC-PT116 isolate promoted the highest growth and tolerance of Ilex paraguariensis seedlings under the treatments. In general, the isolates promoted the reduction of Cu toxicity in Ilex paraguariensis plants, being an important alternative to remediate Cu-contaminated areas

    Rhizophagus Clarus and Phosphorus in Crotalaria juncea: growth, glomalin content and acid phosphatase activity in a copper-contaminated soil

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    Crotalaria juncea is used as plant cover in grape vineyards in Brazil, which usually present soils with high copper (Cu) levels due to the application of Cu-based phyto-sanitary products. Under this condition an increase growth and cover of C. juncea is needed to improve the phytoremediation processes in those soils. Some alternatives to achieve this condition is the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which has demonstrated an important increase of plant growth in Cu-contaminated soils at different soil P levels. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMF inoculation in soils with high Cu contents on the growth of C. juncea, the acid phosphatase (APase) enzyme activity in plants and soil, and the presence of glomalin under different P supply conditions, as a basis to identify if there is a synergistic interaction between AMF inoculation and P supply on soils with high Cu levels. The experiment was carried under greenhouse conditions in a factorial 3 × 2 design (natural P content, addition of 40 and 100 mg kg-1 P, with and without the inoculation of the AMF Rhizophagus clarus with three replicates) in a soil with high Cu content (60 mg kg-1). The addition of 40 and 100 mg kg-1 P favored plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of AMF. However, when plants were grown in soil with a natural P level, the inoculation with AMF increased by 116 % the shoot biomass, compared to the non-inoculated treatment. Our results showed that the combination of P supply and R. clarus inoculation could be an adequate strategy to reduce Cu phytotoxicity in C. juncea, as it increases plant biomass and modify the APase enzyme activity in the soil and plant. Additionally, glomalin produced by the AMF and accumulated in the soil can decrease the availability of Cu to the plants by means of sequestration beyond the root surface, with a consequent plant protective effect

    Rhizophagus clarus and phosphorus in Crotalaria juncea : growth, glomalin content and acid phosphatase activity in a copper-contaminated soil

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    Crotalaria juncea is used as plant cover in grape vineyards in Brazil, which usually present soils with high copper (Cu) levels due to the application of Cu-based phyto-sanitary products. Under this condition an increase growth and cover of C. juncea is needed to improve the phytoremediation processes in those soils. Some alternatives to achieve this condition is the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which has demonstrated an important increase of plant growth in Cu-contaminated soils at different soil P levels. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMF inoculation in soils with high Cu contents on the growth of C. juncea, the acid phosphatase (APase) enzyme activity in plants and soil, and the presence of glomalin under different P supply conditions, as a basis to identify if there is a synergistic interaction between AMF inoculation and P supply on soils with high Cu levels. The experiment was carried under greenhouse conditions in a factorial 3 × 2 design (natural P content, addition of 40 and 100 mg kg-1 P, with and without the inoculation of the AMF Rhizophagus clarus with three replicates) in a soil with high Cu content (60 mg kg-1). The addition of 40 and 100 mg kg-1 P favored plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of AMF. However, when plants were grown in soil with a natural P level, the inoculation with AMF increased by 116 % the shoot biomass, compared to the non-inoculated treatment. Our results showed that the combination of P supply and R. clarus inoculation could be an adequate strategy to reduce Cu phytotoxicity in C. juncea, as it increases plant biomass and modify the APase enzyme activity in the soil and plant. Additionally, glomalin produced by the AMF and accumulated in the soil can decrease the availability of Cu to the plants by means of sequestration beyond the root surface, with a consequent plant protective effect

    IMPACT OF THE COMPETITION DURATION ON LIGHT AND SOIL RESOURCES BETWEEN SOYBEAN AND VOLUNTEER CORN

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    The RR volunteer corn emerged as a problematic weed in the soybean rotation system. In the early crop stages, the requirement resources for growth is little and enough to crop and weeds, however the light competition could triggering morphological changes in response to changes in light reflected from neighboring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of duration of competition for light and soil resources between soybean and volunteer corn. The treatments were competition conditions between soybean and corn as competitor: control, light competition and soil+light competition; and duration of competition: at V3 and V5 soybean growth stages. The results of this study demonstrate that duration and resource of competition with volunteer corn influenced the response on soybean growth and development. The soybean not displayed characteristic of shade avoidance syndrome in light competition. The light competition changes the soybean shoot: root length ratio and root length. In early competition, the soybean growth and development are unaffected for light or soil+light resource in competition. However, in later duration of competition, light and soil+light have similar reduction on effects on soybean growth, development and photosynthetic pigments. 

    Rhizophagus Clarus and Phosphorus in Crotalaria juncea: Growth, Glomalin Content and Acid Phosphatase Activity in a Copper-Contaminated Soil

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    ABSTRACT Crotalaria juncea is used as plant cover in grape vineyards in Brazil, which usually present soils with high copper (Cu) levels due to the application of Cu-based phyto-sanitary products. Under this condition an increase growth and cover of C. juncea is needed to improve the phytoremediation processes in those soils. Some alternatives to achieve this condition is the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which has demonstrated an important increase of plant growth in Cu-contaminated soils at different soil P levels. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMF inoculation in soils with high Cu contents on the growth of C. juncea, the acid phosphatase (APase) enzyme activity in plants and soil, and the presence of glomalin under different P supply conditions, as a basis to identify if there is a synergistic interaction between AMF inoculation and P supply on soils with high Cu levels. The experiment was carried under greenhouse conditions in a factorial 3 × 2 design (natural P content, addition of 40 and 100 mg kg-1 P, with and without the inoculation of the AMF Rhizophagus clarus with three replicates) in a soil with high Cu content (60 mg kg-1). The addition of 40 and 100 mg kg-1 P favored plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of AMF. However, when plants were grown in soil with a natural P level, the inoculation with AMF increased by 116 % the shoot biomass, compared to the non-inoculated treatment. Our results showed that the combination of P supply and R. clarus inoculation could be an adequate strategy to reduce Cu phytotoxicity in C. juncea, as it increases plant biomass and modify the APase enzyme activity in the soil and plant. Additionally, glomalin produced by the AMF and accumulated in the soil can decrease the availability of Cu to the plants by means of sequestration beyond the root surface, with a consequent plant protective effect

    IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF Casearia sylvestris SWARTZ (SALICACEAE)

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    In order to do an in vitro propagation of Casearia sylvestris , a tree native to Brazilian forests, studies of in vitro seed germination were performed and aseptic seedlings obtained were used as explant donors for micropropagation. Mature and immature seeds, stored for 10 days at 10 or 25°C were inoculated in medium containing 10% of MS salts and kept in the light (a 16-hour photoperiod) or continuous dark, at 25°C. For immature seeds, gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) was or was not tested at a concentration of 1.5 mg l -1 . From the seedlings obtained, the cotyledon and apical segments were removed and cultured in complete MS medium with five combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA): 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 0.0; 0025; 0.05; 0.1; 0.2 mg L-1, respectively. The aerial shoots formed in vitro were cultured in MS medium containing 0.0 or 1.5 mg L -1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for rooting. The highest percentage of germination (60%) occurred in mature seeds exposed to light, regardless of other treatments, and may be considered positive photoblastic. The highest percentage of germination of immature seeds (27%) occurred when previously stored at 10 ° C with or without GA 3 . The induction of aerial shoots was more efficient in apical segments in a medium containing the lowest combination of BAP and NAA or free of these growth regulators. The higher number of roots occurred in aerial shoots obtained from cotyledon segments, with or without IBA. After acclimatization, 83% of the plants survived

    PROPAGAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Casearia sylvestris SWARTZ (SALICACEAE)

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    In order to do an in vitro propagation of Casearia sylvestris, a tree native to Brazilian forests, studies of in vitro seed germination were performed and aseptic seedlings obtained were used as explant donors for micropropagation. Mature and immature seeds, stored for 10 days at 10 or 25°C were inoculated in medium containing 10% of MS salts and kept in the light (a 16-hour photoperiod) or continuous dark, at 25°C. For immature seeds, gibberellic acid (GA3) was or was not tested at a concentration of 1.5 mg l-1. From the seedlings obtained, the cotyledon and apical segments were removed and cultured in complete MS medium with five combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA): 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 0.0; 0025; 0.05; 0.1; 0.2 mg L-1, respectively. The aerial shoots formed in vitro were cultured in MS medium containing 0.0 or 1.5 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for rooting. The highest percentage of germination (60%) occurred in mature seeds exposed to light, regardless of other treatments, and may be considered positive photoblastic. The highest percentage of germination of immature seeds (27%) occurred when previously stored at 10 ° C with or without GA3. The induction of aerial shoots was more efficient in apical segments in a medium containing the lowest combination of BAP and NAA or free of these growth regulators. The higher number of roots occurred in aerial shoots obtained from cotyledon segments, with or without IBA. After acclimatization, 83% of the plants survived.Com o objetivo obter a propagação in vitro de Casearia sylvestris, árvore nativa das florestas brasileiras, estudos de germinação in vitro das sementes foram realizados e as plântulas assépticas obtidas foram usadas como doadoras de explantes na micropropagação. Sementes maduras e imaturas, armazenadas por 10 dias a 10 ou 25°C foram inoculadas em meio contendo 10% de sais de MS e mantidas na luz (fotoperíodo de 16 horas) ou escuro contínuo, a 25°C. Para sementes imaturas, testou-se ou não ácido giberélico (GA3) na concentração de 1,5 mg l-1. Das plântulas obtidas, segmentos cotiledonares e apicais foram retirados e cultivados em meio MS completo com cinco combinações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP) e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA): 0,0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 0,0; 0025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,2 mg L-1, respectivamente. As brotações aéreas formadas in vitro foram cultivadas em meio MS contendo 0,0 ou 1,5 mg L-1 de ácido indol-3-butírico (IBA) para o enraizamento. O maior percentual de germinação (60%) ocorreu em sementes maduras expostas à luz, independentemente dos demais tratamentos, podendo ser consideradas fotoblásticas positivas. A maior percentagem de germinação das sementes imaturas (27%) ocorreu quando previamente armazenadas a 10°C, com ou sem GA3. A indução de brotos aéreos foi mais eficiente em segmentos apicais e em meio contendo a menor combinação de BAP e ANA ou isento destes reguladores de crescimento. O maior número de raízes ocorreu em brotos obtidos a partir de segmentos cotiledonares, com ou sem AIB. Após a aclimatização, 83% das plantas sobreviveram

    Microencapsulação de probióticos por spray drying: avaliação da sobrevivência sob condições gastrointestinais simuladas e da viabilidade sob diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento

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    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar microcápsulas contendo Bifidobacterium animalis e Lactobacillus acidophilus, produzidas por spray drying. Ensaios de sobrevivência foram conduzidos para avaliar a resistência dos probióticos a condições gastrointestinais simuladas e a sua viabilidade durante 120 dias de armazenamento a 4ºC e 25ºC, além da análise morfológica das microcápsulas. A microencapsulação protegeu os probióticos das condições gastrointestinais simuladas, os quais permaneceram viáveis após 120 dias de armazenamento a 4ºC e 25ºC, sendo mais viáveis a 4ºC. As microcápsulas apresentaram forma esférica, com superfície contínua relativamente lisa e sem fissuras. O estudo indica que microcápsulas de B. animalis e L. acidophilus, produzidas por spray drying, sobrevivem a condições gastrointestinais simuladas e podem ser melhor armazenadas por 120 dias a 4º
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