254 research outputs found

    Social determinants of health in the setting of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

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    Social determinants of health play an important role in explaining poor health outcomes across many chronic disease states. The impact of the social gradient in the setting of an inherited heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), has not been investigated. This study sought to profile the socioeconomic status of patients attending a specialized multidisciplinary clinic and to determine the impact on clinical factors, psychosocial wellbeing and adherence to medical advice

    Opposing actions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in regulating microtubule stabilization during cardiac hypertrophy

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    Excessive proliferation and stabilization of the microtubule (MT) array in cardiac myocytes can accompany pathological cardiac hypertrophy, but the molecular control of these changes remains poorly characterized. In this study, we examined MT stabilization in two independent murine models of heart failure and revealed increases in the levels of post-translationally modified stable MTs, which were closely associated with STAT3 activation. To explore the molecular signaling events contributing to control of the cardiac MT network, we stimulated cardiac myocytes with an a-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE), and observed increased tubulin content without changes in detyrosinated (glutubulin) stable MT’s. In contrast, the hypertrophic interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines increased both the glu-tubulin content and glu-MT density. When we examined a role for ERK in regulating cardiac MTs, we showed that the MEK/ERK-inhibitor U0126 increased glu-MT density in either control cardiac myocytes or following exposure to hypertrophic agents. Conversely, expression of an activated MEK1 mutant reduced glu-tubulin levels. Thus, ERK signaling antagonizes stabilization of the cardiac MT array. In contrast, inhibiting either JAK2 with AG490, or STAT3 signaling with Stattic or siRNA knockdown, blocked cytokine-stimulated increases in glu-MT density. Furthermore, the expression of a constitutively active STAT3 mutant triggered increased glu-MT density in the absence of hypertrophic stimulation. Thus, STAT3 activation contributes substantially to cytokine-stimulated glu-MT changes. Taken together, our results highlight the opposing actions of STAT3 and ERK pathways in the regulation of MT changes associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy

    Triadin Knockout Syndrome Is Absent in a Multi-Center Molecular Autopsy Cohort of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sudden Unexplained Death in the Young and Is Extremely Rare in the General Population

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    Background: Triadin knockout syndrome (TKOS) is a potentially lethal arrhythmia disorder caused by recessively inherited null variants in TRDN-encoded cardiac triadin. Despite its malignant phenotype, the prevalence of TKOS in sudden infant death syndrome and sudden unexplained death in the young is unknown. Methods: Exome sequencing was performed on 599 sudden infant death syndrome and 258 sudden unexplained death in the young cases. Allele frequencies of all TRDN null variants identified in the cardiac-specific isoform of TRDN in the Genome Aggregation Database were used to determine the estimated prevalence and ethnic distribution of TKOS. Results: No triadin null individuals were identified in 599 sudden infant death syndrome and 258 sudden unexplained death in the young exomes. Using the Genome Aggregation Database, we estimate the overall prevalence of TKOS to be ≈1:22.7 million individuals. However, TKOS prevalence is 5.5-fold higher in those of African descent (≈1:4.1 million). Conclusions: TKOS is an exceedingly rare clinical entity that does not contribute meaningfully to either sudden infant death syndrome or sudden unexplained death in the young. However, despite its rarity and absence in large sudden death cohorts, TKOS remains a malignant and potentially lethal disorder which requires further research to better care for these patients

    Gene variant effects across sodium channelopathies predict function and guide precision therapy

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    Pathogenic variants in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene family (SCNs) lead to early onset epilepsies, neurodevelopmental disorders, skeletal muscle channelopathies, peripheral neuropathies and cardiac arrhythmias. Disease-associated variants have diverse functional effects ranging from complete loss-of-function to marked gain-of-function. Therapeutic strategy is likely to depend on functional effect. Experimental studies offer important insights into channel function, but are resource intensive and only performed in a minority of cases. Given the evolutionarily conserved nature of the sodium channel genes we investigated whether similarities in biophysical properties between different voltage-gated sodium channels can predict function and inform precision treatment across sodium channelopathies. We performed a systematic literature search identifying functionally assessed variants in any of the nine voltage-gated sodium channel genes until 28 April 2021. We included missense variants that had been electrophysiologically characterised in mammalian cells in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We performed an alignment of linear protein sequences of all sodium channel genes and correlated variants by their overall functional effect on biophysical properties. Of 951 identified records, 437 sodium channel-variants met our inclusion criteria and were reviewed for functional properties. Of these, 141 variants were epilepsy-associated (SCN1/2/3/8A), 79 had a neuromuscular phenotype (SCN4/9/10/11A), 149 were associated with a cardiac phenotype (SCN5/10A) and 68 (16%) were considered benign. We detected 38 missense variant pairs with an identical disease-associated variant in a different sodium channel gene. 35 out of 38 of those pairs resulted in similar functional consequences indicating up to 92% biophysical agreement between corresponding sodium channel variants (odds ratio = 11.3; 95% CI = 2.8 to 66.9; P < 0.001). Pathogenic missense variants were clustered in specific functional domains, whereas population variants were significantly more frequent across non conserved domains (odds ratio = 18.6; 95% CI = 10.9 to 34.4; P < 0.001). Pore-loop regions were frequently associated with loss-of-function (LoF) variants, whereas inactivation sites were associated with gain-of-function (GoF; odds ratio = 42.1, 95% CI = 14.5 to 122.4; P < 0.001), whilst variants occurring in voltage-sensing regions comprised a range of gain- and loss-of-function effects. Our findings suggest that biophysical characterisation of variants in one SCN-gene can predict channel function across different SCN-genes where experimental data are not available. The collected data represent the first GoF versus LoF topological map of SCN proteins indicating shared patterns of biophysical effects aiding variant analysis and guiding precision therapy. We integrated our findings into a free online webtool to facilitate functional sodium channel gene variant interpretation (http://SCN-viewer.broadinstitute.org)

    Lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in Brugada Syndrome and Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome families with reported pathogenic SCN1B variants.

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    BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence that Brugada Syndrome (BrS) is due to SCN1B variants (BrS5). This gene may be inappropriately included in routine genetic testing panels for BrS or Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS). OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in families who had BrS and SADS with reportedly pathogenic SCN1B variants and to review their pathogenicity. METHODS: Families with BrS and SADS were assessed from 6 inherited arrhythmia centers worldwide, and a comprehensive literature review was performed. Clinical characteristics including relevant history, electrocardiographic parameters and drug provocation testing results were studied. SCN1B genetic testing results were reclassified using American College of Medical Genetics criteria. RESULTS: A total of 23 SCN1B genotype-positive individuals were identified from 8 families. Four probands (17%) experienced ventricular fibrillation or sudden cardiac death at the time of presentation. All family members were free from syncope or ventricular arrhythmias. Only 2 of 23 genotype-positive individuals (9%) demonstrated a spontaneous BrS electrocardiographic pattern. Drug challenge testing for BrS in 87% (13 of 15) was negative. There was no difference in PR interval (161 ± 7 ms vs 165 ± 9 ms; P = .83), QRS duration (101 ± 6 ms vs 89 ± 5 ms; P = .35), or corrected QT interval (414 ± 35 ms vs 405 ± 8 ms; P = .7) between genotype-positive and genotype-negative family members. The overall frequency of previously implicated SCN1B variants in the Genome Aggregation Database browser is 0.004%, exceeding the estimated prevalence of BrS owing to SCN1B (0.0005%), including 15 of 23 individuals (65%) who had the p.Trp179X variant. CONCLUSION: The lack of genotype-phenotype concordance among families, combined with the high frequency of previously reported mutations in the Genome Aggregation Database browser, suggests that SCN1B is not a monogenic cause of BrS or SADS