202 research outputs found

    A duality of generalized metric spaces

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    AbstractWe develop a duality theory for Lawvereʼs generalized metric spaces that extends the Lawson duality for continuous dcpos and open filter reflecting maps: we prove that the category of relatively cocomplete and continuous [0,∞]-categories considered with open filter reflecting maps is self-dual

    MiRP1 forms IKr potassium channels with HERG and is associated with cardiac arrhythmia.

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    A novel potassium channel gene has been cloned, characterized, and associated with cardiac arrhythmia. The gene encodes MinK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1), a small integral membrane subunit that assembles with HERG, a pore-forming protein, to alter its function. Unlike channels formed only with HERG, mixed complexes resemble native cardiac IKr channels in their gating, unitary conductance, regulation by potassium, and distinctive biphasic inhibition by the class III antiarrhythmic E-4031. Three missense mutations associated with long QT syndrome and ventricular fibrillation are identified in the gene for MiRP1. Mutants form channels that open slowly and close rapidly, thereby diminishing potassium currents. One variant, associated with clarithromycin-induced arrhythmia, increases channel blockade by the antibiotic. A mechanism for acquired arrhythmia is revealed: genetically based reduction in potassium currents that remains clinically silent until combined with additional stressors

    Flexibility in MOFs: Do scalar and group-theoretical counting rules work?

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    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. We investigate the ability of counting rules drafted from engineering to predict the flexibility or rigidity of bar-and-joint or body-and-joint assemblies representing metal organic frameworks. We show that while scalar counting rules are not reliable, group-theoretical approaches are able to disentangle mechanisms from states of self-stress and to predict the existence of flexible mechanisms. We give several detailed examples of such calculations, highlighting the fact that behind an abstract exterior they are in fact easy to apply and similar to the method used to obtain molecular vibrations. We also correct a slight misinterpretation of the rigidity of IRMOF-1

    Transcription profiling of HCN-channel isotypes throughout mouse cardiac development

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    Hyperpolarization-activated ion channels, encoded by four mammalian genes (HCN1-4), contribute in an important way to the cardiac pacemaker current If. Here, we describe the transcription profiles of the four HCN genes, the NRSF, KCNE2 and Kir2.1 genes from embryonic stage E9.5 dpc to postnatal day 120 in the mouse. Embryonic atrium and ventricle revealed abundant HCN4 transcription but other HCN transcripts were almost absent. Towards birth, HCN4 was downregulated in the atrium and almost vanished from the ventricle. After birth, however, HCN isotype transcription changed remarkably, showing increased levels of HCN1, HCN2 and HCN4 in the atrium and of HCN2 and HCN4 in the ventricle. HCN3 showed highest transcription at early embryonic stages and was hardly detectable thereafter. At postnatal day 10, HCN4 was highest in the sinoatrial node, being twofold higher than HCN1 and fivefold higher than HCN2. In the atrium, HCN4 was similar to HCN1 and sevenfold higher than HCN2. In the ventricle, in contrast, HCN2 was sixfold higher than HCN4, while HCN1 was absent. Subsequently all HCN isotype transcripts declined to lower adult levels, while ratios of HCN isotypes remained stable. In conclusion, substantial changes of HCN isotype transcription throughout cardiac development suggest that a regulated pattern of HCN isotypes is required to establish and ensure a stable heart rhythm. Furthermore, constantly low HCN transcription in adult myocardium may be required to prevent atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis

    Probing the bradycardic drug binding receptor of HCN-encoded pacemaker channels

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    If (or Ih), encoded by the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1–4) channel gene family, contributes significantly to cardiac pacing. Bradycardic agents such as ZD7288 that target HCN channels have been developed, but the molecular configuration of their receptor is poorly defined. Here, we probed the drug receptor by systematically introducing alanine scanning substitutions into the selectivity filter (C347A, I348A, G349A, Y350A, G351A in the P-loop), outer (P355A, V356A, S357A, M358A in the P-S6 linker), and inner (M377A, F378A, V379A in S6) pore vestibules of HCN1 channels. When heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells for patch-clamp recordings, I348A, G349A, Y350A, G351A, P355A, and V356A did not produce measurable currents. The half-blocking concentration (IC50) of wild type (WT) for ZD7288 was 25.8 ± 9.7 μM. While the IC50 of M358A was identical to WT, those of C347A, S357A, F378A, and V379A markedly increased to 137.6 ± 56.4, 113.3 ± 34.1, 587.1 ± 167.5, and 1726.3 ± 673.4 μM, respectively (p < 0.05). Despite the proximity of the S6 residues studied, M377A was hypersensitive (IC50 = 5.1 ± 0.7 μM; p < 0.05) implicating site specificity. To explore the energetic interactions among the S6 residues, double and triple substitutions (M377A/F378A, M377A/V379A, F378A/V379A, and M377A/F378A/V379A) were generated for thermodynamic cycle analysis. Specific interactions with coupling energies (ΔΔG) >1 kT for M377–F378 and F378–V379 but not M377–V379 were identified. Based on these new data and others, we proposed a refined drug-blocking model that may lead to improved antiarrhythmics and bioartificial pacemaker designs

    An International Multi-Center Evaluation of Type 5 Long QT Syndrome: A Low Penetrant Primary Arrhythmic Condition.

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    Background: Insight into type 5 long QT syndrome (LQT5) has been limited to case reports and small family series. Improved understanding of the clinical phenotype and genetic features associated with rare KCNE1 variants implicated in LQT5 was sought through an international multi-center collaboration. Methods: Patients with either presumed autosomal dominant LQT5 (N = 229) or the recessive Type 2 Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS2, N = 19) were enrolled from 22 genetic arrhythmia clinics and 4 registries from 9 countries. KCNE1 variants were evaluated for ECG penetrance (defined as QTc > 460ms on presenting ECG) and genotype-phenotype segregation. Multivariable Cox regression was used to compare the associations between clinical and genetic variables with a composite primary outcome of definite arrhythmic events, including appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death. Results: A total of 32 distinct KCNE1 rare variants were identified in 89 probands and 140 genotype positive family members with presumed LQT5 and an additional 19 JLNS2 patients. Among presumed LQT5 patients, the mean QTc on presenting ECG was significantly longer in probands (476.9 ± 38.6ms) compared to genotype positive family members (441.8 ± 30.9ms, p<0.001). ECG penetrance for heterozygous genotype positive family members was 20.7% (29/140). A definite arrhythmic event was experienced in 16.9% (15/89) of heterozygous probands in comparison with 1.4% (2/140) of family members (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 11.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-52.2; p=0.001). Event incidence did not differ significantly for JLNS2 patients relative to the overall heterozygous cohort (10.5% [2/19]; HR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.3-10.8, p=0.590). The cumulative prevalence of the 32 KCNE1 variants in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), which is a human database of exome and genome sequencing data from now over 140,000 individuals, was 238-fold greater than the anticipated prevalence of all LQT5 combined (0.238% vs. 0.001%). Conclusions: The present study suggests that putative/confirmed loss-of-function KCNE1 variants predispose to QT-prolongation, however the low ECG penetrance observed suggests they do not manifest clinically in the majority of individuals, aligning with the mild phenotype observed for JLNS2 patients

    A Novel and Lethal De Novo LQT-3 Mutation in a Newborn with Distinct Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutic Response

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    SCN5A encodes the alpha-subunit (Na(v)1.5) of the principle Na(+) channel in the human heart. Genetic lesions in SCN5A can cause congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) variant 3 (LQT-3) in adults by disrupting inactivation of the Na(v)1.5 channel. Pharmacological targeting of mutation-altered Na(+) channels has proven promising in developing a gene-specific therapeutic strategy to manage specifically this LQTS variant. SCN5A mutations that cause similar channel dysfunction may also contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other arrhythmias in newborns, but the prevalence, impact, and therapeutic management of SCN5A mutations may be distinct in infants compared with adults.Here, in a multidisciplinary approach, we report a de novo SCN5A mutation (F1473C) discovered in a newborn presenting with extreme QT prolongation and differential responses to the Na(+) channel blockers flecainide and mexiletine. Our goal was to determine the Na(+) channel phenotype caused by this severe mutation and to determine whether distinct effects of different Na(+) channel blockers on mutant channel activity provide a mechanistic understanding of the distinct therapeutic responsiveness of the mutation carrier. Sequence analysis of the proband revealed the novel missense SCN5A mutation (F1473C) and a common variant in KCNH2 (K897T). Patch clamp analysis of HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with wild-type or mutant Na(+) channels revealed significant changes in channel biophysics, all contributing to the proband's phenotype as predicted by in silico modeling. Furthermore, subtle differences in drug action were detected in correcting mutant channel activity that, together with both the known genetic background and age of the patient, contribute to the distinct therapeutic responses observed clinically.The results of our study provide further evidence of the grave vulnerability of newborns to Na(+) channel defects and suggest that both genetic background and age are particularly important in developing a mutation-specific therapeutic personalized approach to manage disorders in the young
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