26 research outputs found

    Selection for Medical School:the quest for validity

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    Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective

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    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web-based self-help ACT may not be allocated to chronic pain sufferers experiencing low levels of mental resilience resources such as self-acceptance, goals in life, and environmental mastery. Other subgroups are identified that potentially need specific tailoring of (web-based) ACT. Emotional and psychological wellbeing should receive much more attention in subsequent studies on chronic pain and illness

    Opening the black box of selection

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    Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Selection into medicine : the predictive validity of an outcome-based procedure

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    Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Dr. Kelly Dore for valuable advice and sharing Computer-based Assessment for Sampling Personal characteristics (CASPer) assignments in order to develop our Situational Judgement Test and Angela Verheyen and Guus Smeets for their essential support in gathering data.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Handboek Selectie : hoger onderwijs

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    Moderators of the effect of psychosocial interventions on fatigue in women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer:Individual patient data meta-analyses

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    Objective Psychosocial interventions can reduce cancer-related fatigue effectively. However, it is still unclear if intervention effects differ across subgroups of patients. These meta-analyses aimed at evaluating moderator effects of (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) clinical characteristics, (c) baseline levels of fatigue and other symptoms, and (d) intervention-related characteristics on the effect of psychosocial interventions on cancer-related fatigue in patients with non-metastatic breast and prostate cancer. Methods Data were retrieved from the Predicting OptimaL cAncer RehabIlitation and Supportive care (POLARIS) consortium. Potential moderators were studied with meta-analyses of pooled individual patient data from 14 randomized controlled trials through linear mixed-effects models with interaction tests. The analyses were conducted separately in patients with breast (n = 1091) and prostate cancer (n = 1008). Results Statistically significant, small overall effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue were found (breast cancer: beta = -0.19 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) = -0.30; -0.08]; prostate cancer: beta = -0.11 [95%CI = -0.21; -0.00]). In both patient groups, intervention effects did not differ significantly by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics, nor by baseline levels of fatigue or pain. For intervention-related moderators (only tested among women with breast cancer), statistically significant larger effects were found for cognitive behavioral therapy as intervention strategy (beta = -0.27 [95%CI = -0.40; -0.15]), fatigue-specific interventions (beta = -0.48 [95%CI = -0.79; -0.18]), and interventions that only targeted patients with clinically relevant fatigue (beta = -0.85 [95%CI = -1.40; -0.30]). Conclusions Our findings did not provide evidence that any selected demographic or clinical characteristic, or baseline levels of fatigue or pain, moderated effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue. A specific focus on decreasing fatigue seems beneficial for patients with breast cancer with clinically relevant fatigue

    Did the perpetrator have a gun, or did he not? ‚Äď Children‚Äôs false memories and the developmental reversal phenomenon

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    Developmental reversal in false memories is the counterintuitive phenomenon that older children and adults are more prone to developing false memories than younger children and that false memories increase with age. The current paper discusses the theories behind this phenomenon and the paradigms that can be used to investigate it. Not only age is a prominent factor in the development of false memories. The role of emotional load of the falsely remembered words will also be investigated

    Increasing value in research:cost evaluations in health professions education

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    The authors use foo et al.'s discussion of the value of economic evaluations to consider how such techniques might advance the practice of selection for medical school
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