146 research outputs found

### Thin film dielectric microstrip kinetic inductance detectors

Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, are a type of low
temperature detector that exhibit intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing at
microwave frequencies. We present the first theory and measurements on a MKID
based on a microstrip transmission line resonator. A complete characterization
of the dielectric loss and noise properties of these resonators is performed,
and agrees well with the derived theory. A competitive noise equivalent power
of 5$\times10^{-17}$ W Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 1 Hz has been demonstrated. The
resonators exhibit the highest quality factors known in a microstrip resonator
with a deposited thin film dielectric.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, APL accepte

### Improving the Coherence Time of Superconducting Coplanar Resonators

The quality factor and energy decay time of superconducting resonators have
been measured as a function of material, geometry, and magnetic field. Once the
dissipation of trapped magnetic vortices is minimized, we identify surface
two-level states (TLS) as an important decay mechanism. A wide gap between the
center conductor and the ground plane, as well as use of the superconductor Re
instead of Al, are shown to decrease loss. We also demonstrate that classical
measurements of resonator quality factor at low excitation power are consistent
with single-photon decay time measured using qubit-resonator swap experiments.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figures for the main paper; total 5 pages, 6 figures
including supplementary material. Submitted to Applied Physics Letter

### Energy decay and frequency shift of a superconducting qubit from non-equilibrium quasiparticles

Quasiparticles are an important decoherence mechanism in superconducting
qubits, and can be described with a complex admittance that is a generalization
of the Mattis-Bardeen theory. By injecting non-equilibrium quasiparticles with
a tunnel junction, we verify qualitatively the expected change of the decay
rate and frequency in a phase qubit. With their relative change in agreement to
within 4% of prediction, the theory can be reliably used to infer quasiparticle
density. We describe how settling of the decay rate may allow determination of
whether qubit energy relaxation is limited by non-equilibrium quasiparticles.Comment: Main paper: 4 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. Supplementary material: 8
pages, 3 figure

### Deterministic entanglement of photons in two superconducting microwave resonators

Quantum entanglement, one of the defining features of quantum mechanics, has
been demonstrated in a variety of nonlinear spin-like systems. Quantum
entanglement in linear systems has proven significantly more challenging, as
the intrinsic energy level degeneracy associated with linearity makes quantum
control more difficult. Here we demonstrate the quantum entanglement of photon
states in two independent linear microwave resonators, creating N-photon NOON
states as a benchmark demonstration. We use a superconducting quantum circuit
that includes Josephson qubits to control and measure the two resonators, and
we completely characterize the entangled states with bipartite Wigner
tomography. These results demonstrate a significant advance in the quantum
control of linear resonators in superconducting circuits.Comment: 11 pages, 11 figures, and 3 tables including supplementary materia

### Quantum process tomography of two-qubit controlled-Z and controlled-NOT gates using superconducting phase qubits

We experimentally demonstrate quantum process tomography of controlled-Z and
controlled-NOT gates using capacitively-coupled superconducting phase qubits.
These gates are realized by using the $|2\rangle$ state of the phase qubit. We
obtain a process fidelity of 0.70 for the controlled-phase and 0.56 for the
controlled-NOT gate, with the loss of fidelity mostly due to single-qubit
decoherence. The controlled-Z gate is also used to demonstrate a two-qubit
Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a single function query.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figures, including supplementary informatio

### Reduced phase error through optimized control of a superconducting qubit

Minimizing phase and other errors in experimental quantum gates allows higher
fidelity quantum processing. To quantify and correct for phase errors in
particular, we have developed a new experimental metrology --- amplified phase
error (APE) pulses --- that amplifies and helps identify phase errors in
general multi-level qubit architectures. In order to correct for both phase and
amplitude errors specific to virtual transitions and leakage outside of the
qubit manifold, we implement "half derivative" an experimental simplification
of derivative reduction by adiabatic gate (DRAG) control theory. The phase
errors are lowered by about a factor of five using this method to $\sim
1.6^{\circ}$ per gate, and can be tuned to zero. Leakage outside the qubit
manifold, to the qubit $|2\rangle$ state, is also reduced to $\sim 10^{-4}$ for
$20\%$ faster gates.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures with 2 page supplementa

### Multiplexed dispersive readout of superconducting phase qubits

We introduce a frequency-multiplexed readout scheme for superconducting phase
qubits. Using a quantum circuit with four phase qubits, we couple each qubit to
a separate lumped-element superconducting readout resonator, with the readout
resonators connected in parallel to a single measurement line. The readout
resonators and control electronics are designed so that all four qubits can be
read out simultaneously using frequency multiplexing on the one measurement
line. This technology provides a highly efficient and compact means for reading
out multiple qubits, a significant advantage for scaling up to larger numbers
of qubits.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

### Planar Superconducting Resonators with Internal Quality Factors above One Million

We describe the fabrication and measurement of microwave coplanar waveguide
resonators with internal quality factors above 10 million at high microwave
powers and over 1 million at low powers, with the best low power results
approaching 2 million, corresponding to ~1 photon in the resonator. These
quality factors are achieved by controllably producing very smooth and clean
interfaces between the resonators' aluminum metallization and the underlying
single crystal sapphire substrate. Additionally, we describe a method for
analyzing the resonator microwave response, with which we can directly
determine the internal quality factor and frequency of a resonator embedded in
an imperfect measurement circuit.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl

- â€¦