4,237 research outputs found

    Observation of the production of three massive gauge bosons at √s=13 TeV

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    The first observation is reported of the combined production of three massive gauge bosons (VVV with V=W, Z) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The analysis is based on a data sample recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137  fb^−1. The searches for individual WWW, WWZ, WZZ, and ZZZ production are performed in final states with three, four, five, and six leptons (electrons or muons), or with two same-sign leptons plus one or two jets. The observed (expected) significance of the combined VVV production signal is 5.7 (5.9) standard deviations and the corresponding measured cross section relative to the standard model prediction is 1.02^+0.26_−0.23. The significances of the individual WWW and WWZ production are 3.3 and 3.4 standard deviations, respectively. Measured production cross sections for the individual triboson processes are also reported.Published versio

    Analysis of temporal and spatial phytoplankton variability in a Long Island salt marsh

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    A study of phytoplankton and related variables in a Long Island salt marsh was designed to incorporate three major sources of variation in the sampling regime: spatial, short-term temporal, and long-term temporal. The combination of multivariate (MANOVA and factor analysis) and univariate (ANOVA) data analyses was used to examine the relative importance of each source of variation in 11 variables and to aid in the ecological interpretation of the data. MANOVA confirmed that all three sources of variation were significant with temporal variation (weekly sampling and at different times of the day) more important than spatial variation (sampling at different stations). The analyses also indicated that sampling a dynamic, tidally-driven system, such as a small salt marsh, cannot be carried out on a once-per-day basis; tidal flushing and diurnal changes in primary production induce a large amount of variation into the concentrations of phytoplankton and related variables within the salt marsh.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/24393/1/0000663.pd

    Ecological and evolutionary factors in the morphological diversification of South American spiny rats

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    Understanding the processes underlying morphological diversification is a central goal in ecology and evolutionary biology and requires the integration of information about phylogenetic divergence and ecological niche diversity. In the present study, we use geometric morphometrics and comparative methods to investigate morphological diversification in Neotropical spiny rats of the family Echimyidae. Morphological diversification is studied as shape variation in the skull, comprising a structure composed of four distinct units: vault, base, orognathofacial complex, and mandible. We demonstrate association among patterns of variation in shape in different cranial units, levels of phylogenetic divergence, and ecological niche diversification. At the lower level of phylogenetic divergence, there is significant and positive concordance between patterns of phylogenetic divergence and cranial shape variation in all cranial units. This concordance may be attributable to the phylogenetic and shape distances being calculated between species that occupy the same niche. At higher phylogenetic levels of divergence and with ecological niche diversity, there is significant concordance between shape variation in all four cranial units and the ecological niches. In particular, the orognathofacial complex revealed the most significant association between shape variation and ecological niche diversity. This association may be explained by the great functional importance of the orognathofacial complex.Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Muse

    Ecological and evolutionary factors in the morphological diversification of South American spiny rats

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    Understanding the processes underlying morphological diversification is a central goal in ecology and evolutionary biology and requires the integration of information about phylogenetic divergence and ecological niche diversity. In the present study, we use geometric morphometrics and comparative methods to investigate morphological diversification in Neotropical spiny rats of the family Echimyidae. Morphological diversification is studied as shape variation in the skull, comprising a structure composed of four distinct units: vault, base, orognathofacial complex, and mandible. We demonstrate association among patterns of variation in shape in different cranial units, levels of phylogenetic divergence, and ecological niche diversification. At the lower level of phylogenetic divergence, there is significant and positive concordance between patterns of phylogenetic divergence and cranial shape variation in all cranial units. This concordance may be attributable to the phylogenetic and shape distances being calculated between species that occupy the same niche. At higher phylogenetic levels of divergence and with ecological niche diversity, there is significant concordance between shape variation in all four cranial units and the ecological niches. In particular, the orognathofacial complex revealed the most significant association between shape variation and ecological niche diversity. This association may be explained by the great functional importance of the orognathofacial complex.Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Muse

    MSU Xtreme: Minnesota State University, Mankato\u27s Entry into the Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001

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    Minnesota State University, Mankato’s Automotive Engineering Technology program formed a team to enter the Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001. Selections for the organization’s machine included a 2001 Polaris Edge Chassis specially outfitted with a 2000 500 cc two-stroke Polaris engine. Modifications to the snowmobile were made specifically for Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001 events. Acceleration, emissions, cold start, noise, fuel economy/range, handling/drivability, hill climb, and static display made up the list of events featured in the competition. MSU Xtreme has modified the snowmobile in every area with special emphasis on emissions and handling. Testing and analysis of the sled’s systems brought the team to its resulting design. The technical paper describes the results of those tests, explains the team design procedures, and presents all modifications made to the snowmobile

    Ecological and evolutionary factors in the morphological diversification of South American spiny rats

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    Understanding the processes underlying morphological diversification is a central goal in ecology and evolutionary biology and requires the integration of information about phylogenetic divergence and ecological niche diversity. In the present study, we use geometric morphometrics and comparative methods to investigate morphological diversification in Neotropical spiny rats of the family Echimyidae. Morphological diversification is studied as shape variation in the skull, comprising a structure composed of four distinct units: vault, base, orognathofacial complex, and mandible. We demonstrate association among patterns of variation in shape in different cranial units, levels of phylogenetic divergence, and ecological niche diversification. At the lower level of phylogenetic divergence, there is significant and positive concordance between patterns of phylogenetic divergence and cranial shape variation in all cranial units. This concordance may be attributable to the phylogenetic and shape distances being calculated between species that occupy the same niche. At higher phylogenetic levels of divergence and with ecological niche diversity, there is significant concordance between shape variation in all four cranial units and the ecological niches. In particular, the orognathofacial complex revealed the most significant association between shape variation and ecological niche diversity. This association may be explained by the great functional importance of the orognathofacial complex.Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Muse

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 Genotype Are Associated with Shifts in Human Ileum Associated Microbial Composition

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    We tested the hypothesis that Crohn’s disease (CD)-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum–associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples. Sanger sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1–V3 and V3–V5), were conducted on macroscopically disease-unaffected ileal biopsies collected from 52 ileal CD, 58 ulcerative colitis and 60 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) undergoing initial surgical resection. These subjects also were genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Leu1007fs, R708W, G908R) and the ATG16L1 risk allele (T300A). The samples were linked to clinical metadata, including body mass index, smoking status and Clostridia difficile infection. The sequences were classified into seven phyla/subphyla categories using the Naïve Bayesian Classifier of the Ribosome Database Project. Centered log ratio transformation of six predominant categories was included as the dependent variable in the permutation based MANCOVA for the overall composition with stepwise variable selection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to measure the relative frequencies of the Clostridium coccoides – Eubacterium rectales group and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii spp. Empiric logit transformations of the relative frequencies of these two microbial groups were included in permutation-based ANCOVA. Regardless of sequencing method, IBD phenotype, Clostridia difficile and NOD2 genotype were selected as associated (FDR ≤0.05) with shifts in overall microbial composition. IBD phenotype and NOD2 genotype were also selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of the C. coccoides – E. rectales group. IBD phenotype, smoking and IBD medications were selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of F. prausnitzii spp. These results indicate that the effects of genetic and environmental factors on IBD are mediated at least in part by the enteric microbiota
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