1,985 research outputs found

    Social network analysis of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) group in captivity following the integration of a new adult member

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    Management of primates in captivity often presents the challenge of introducing new individuals into a group, and research investigating the stability of the social network in the medium-term after the introduction can help inform management decisions. We investigated the behavior of a group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Chester Zoo, UK over 12 months (divided into three periods of four months) following the introduction of a new adult female. We recorded grooming, proximity, other affiliative behaviors and agonistic behaviors and used Social Network Analysis to investigate the stability, reciprocity and structure of the group, to examine the effect of rearing history on grooming network position and the role of sex in agonistic behavior. Both the grooming and agonistic networks correlated across all three periods, while affiliative networks correlated only between periods two and three. Males had significantly higher out-degree centrality in agonistic behaviors than females, indicating that they carried out agonistic behaviors more often than females. There was no significant difference in centrality between hand-reared and mother-reared chimpanzees. Overall, the group structure was stable and cohesive during the first year after the introduction of the new female, suggesting that this change did not destabilize the group. Our findings highlight the utility of Social Network Analysis in the study of primate sociality in captivity, and how it can be used to better understand primate behavior following the integration of new individuals

    The Rhythms of Transient Relationships: Allocating time between weekdays and weekends

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    A fundamental question of any new relationship is, will it last? Transient relationships, recently defined by the authors, are an ideal type of social tie to explore this question: these relationships are characterized by distinguishable starting and ending temporal points, linking the question of tie longevity to relationship finite lifetime. In this study, we use mobile phone data sets from the UK and Italy to analyze the weekly allocation of time invested in maintaining transient relationships. We find that more relationships are created during weekdays, with a greater proportion of them receiving more contact during these days of the week in the long term. The smaller group of relationships that receive more phone calls during the weekend tend to remain active for more time. We uncover a sorting process by which some ties are moved from weekdays to weekends and vice versa, mostly in the first half of the relationship. This process also carries more information about the ultimate lifetime of a tie than the part of the week when the relationship started, which suggests an early evaluation period that leads to a decision on how to allocate time to different types of transient ties.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures. Submitted for review at Royal Society Open Science R

    Social Network Analysis of a Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) Group in Captivity Following the Integration of a New Adult Member

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    From Springer Nature via Jisc Publications RouterHistory: received 2019-12-19, accepted 2020-08-20, registration 2020-08-21, pub-print 2020-10, online 2020-10-10, pub-electronic 2020-10-10Publication status: PublishedFunder: University of ChesterAbstract: Management of primates in captivity often presents the challenge of introducing new individuals into a group, and research investigating the stability of the social network in the medium term after the introduction can help inform management decisions. We investigated the behavior of a group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Chester Zoo, UK over 12 months (divided into three periods of 4 months) following the introduction of a new adult female. We recorded grooming, proximity, other affiliative behaviors, and agonistic behaviors and used social network analysis to investigate the stability, reciprocity, and structure of the group, to examine the effect of rearing history on grooming network position and the role of sex in agonistic behavior. Both the grooming and agonistic networks correlated across all three periods, while affiliative networks correlated only between periods 2 and 3. Males had significantly higher out-degree centrality in agonistic behaviors than females, indicating that they carried out agonistic behaviors more often than females. There was no significant difference in centrality between hand-reared and mother-reared chimpanzees. Overall, the group structure was stable and cohesive during the first year after the introduction of the new female, suggesting that this change did not destabilize the group. Our findings highlight the utility of social network analysis in the study of primate sociality in captivity, and how it can be used to better understand primate behavior following the integration of new individuals

    Daily Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication

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    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals' social networks. Further, women's calls were longer than men's calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day.TA and JS were funded by The Academy of Finland, project No. 260427 (http://www.aka.fi) and the computational resources were provided by Aalto 379 Science-IT project. The study was funded by a grant from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and Economic and Social Research Council (grant No. EP/D052114/2). RD is funded by European Research Council (grant no. 295663). The 380 collection of the data by SGBR and RD was made possible by a grant from the UK 381 EPSRC and ESRC research councils. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

    Are we measuring loneliness in the same way in men and women in the general population and in the older population? Two studies of measurement equivalence.

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    Background: High levels of loneliness are associated with negative health outcomes and there are several different types of interventions targeted at reducing feelings of loneliness. It is therefore important to accurately measure loneliness. A key unresolved debate in the conceptualisation and measurement of loneliness is whether it has a unidimensional or multidimensional structure. The aim of this study was to examine the dimensional structure of the widely used UCLA Loneliness Scale and establish whether this factorial structure is equivalent in men and women. Methods and Sample: Two online UK-based samples were recruited using Prolific. The participants in Study 1 were 492 adults, selected to be nationally representative by age and gender, whilst the participants in Study 2 were 290 older adults aged over 64. In both studies, participants completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) as part of a larger project. Results: In both studies, the best fitting model was one with three factors corresponding to ‚ÄėIsolation,‚Äô ‚ÄėRelational Connectedness,‚Äô and ‚ÄėCollective Connectedness.‚Äô A unidimensional single factor model was a substantially worse fit in both studies. In both studies, there were no meaningful differences between men and women in any of the three factors, suggesting measurement invariance across genders. Conclusion: These results are consistent with previous research in supporting a multidimensional, three factor structure to the UCLA scale, rather than a unidimensional structure. Further, the measurement invariance across genders suggests that the UCLA scale can be used to compare levels of loneliness across men and women. Overall the results suggest that loneliness has different facets and thus future research should consider treating the UCLA loneliness scale as a multidimensional scale, or using other scales which are designed to measure the different aspects of loneliness

    Measurement of the Gamow-Teller Strength Distribution in 58Co via the 58Ni(t,3He) reaction at 115 MeV/nucleon

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    Electron capture and beta decay play important roles in the evolution of pre-supernovae stars and their eventual core collapse. These rates are normally predicted through shell-model calculations. Experimentally determined strength distributions from charge-exchange reactions are needed to test modern shell-model calculations. We report on the measurement of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in 58Co from the 58Ni(t,3He) reaction with a secondary triton beam of an intensity of ~10^6 pps at 115 MeV/nucleon and a resolution of \~250 keV. Previous measurements with the 58Ni(n,p) and the 58Ni(d,2He) reactions were inconsistent with each other. Our results support the latter. We also compare the results to predictions of large-scale shell model calculations using the KB3G and GXPF1 interactions and investigate the impact of differences between the various experiments and theories in terms of the weak rates in the stellar environment. Finally, the systematic uncertainties in the normalization of the strength distribution extracted from 58Ni(3He,t) are described and turn out to be non-negligible due to large interferences between the dL=0, dS=1 Gamow-Teller amplitude and the dL=2, dS=1 amplitude.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figure

    Enhanced high-dispersion coronagraphy with KPIC phase II: design, assembly and status of sub-modules

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    The Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer (KPIC) is a purpose-built instrument for high-dispersion coronagraphy in the K and L bands on Keck. This instrument will provide the first high resolution (R>30,000) spectra of known directly imaged exoplanets and low-mass brown dwarf companions visible in the northern hemisphere. KPIC is developed in phases. Phase I is currently at Keck in the early operations stage, and the phase II upgrade will deploy in late 2021. The goal of phase II is to maximize the throughput for planet light and minimize the stellar leakage, hence reducing the exposure time needed to acquire spectra with a given signal-to- noise ratio. To achieve this, KPIC phase II exploits several innovative technologies that have not been combined this way before. These include a 1000-element deformable mirror for wavefront correction and speckle control, a set of lossless beam shaping optics to maximize coupling into the fiber, a pupil apodizer to suppress unwanted starlight, a pupil plane vortex mask to enable the acquisition of spectra at and within the diffraction limit, and an atmospheric dispersion compensator. These modules, when combined with the active fiber injection unit present in phase I, will make for a highly efficient exoplanet characterization platform. In this paper, we will present the final design of the optics and opto-mechanics and highlight some innovative solutions we implemented to facilitate all the new capabilities. We will provide an overview of the assembly and laboratory testing of the sub-modules and some of the results. Finally, we will outline the deployment timeline

    Managing Relationship Decay Network, Gender, and Contextual Effects

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    Relationships are central to human life strategies and have crucial fitness consequences. Yet, at the same time, they incur significant maintenance costs that are rarely considered in either social psychological or evolutionary studies. Although many social psychological studies have explored their dynamics, these studies have typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense ties, whereas social networks in fact consist of a large number of ties that serve a variety of different functions. In this study, we examined how entire active personal networks changed over 18 months across a major life transition. Family relationships and friendships differed strikingly in this respect. The decline in friendship quality was mitigated by increased effort invested in the relationship, but with a striking gender difference: relationship decline was prevented most by increased contact frequency (talking together) for females but by doing more activities together in the case of males

    Going That Extra Mile: Individuals Travel Further to Maintain Face-to-Face Contact with Highly Related Kin than with Less Related Kin

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    The theory of inclusive fitness has transformed our understanding of cooperation and altruism. However, the proximate psychological underpinnings of altruism are less well understood, and it has been argued that emotional closeness mediates the relationship between genetic relatedness and altruism. In this study, we use a real-life costly behaviour (travel time) to dissociate the effects of genetic relatedness from emotional closeness. Participants travelled further to see more closely related kin, as compared to more distantly related kin. For distantly related kin, the level of emotional closeness mediated this relationship - when emotional closeness was controlled for, there was no effect of genetic relatedness on travel time. However, participants were willing to travel further to visit parents, children and siblings as compared to more distantly related kin, even when emotional closeness was controlled for. This suggests that the mediating effect of emotional closeness on altruism varies with levels of genetic relatednes

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at ‚ąö s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb‚ąí1 of ‚ąö s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente
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