2,162 research outputs found

    Assessing the effectiveness of micro-spring technology to reduce initial and peak loading rates when integrated into running footwear

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    Running has long been one of the world’s most popular recreational activities. The current total of European runners exceeds 80 million, approximately, 36% of 15�65-year-old European population. Running is one of the most widespread activities during which overuse injuries of the lower extremity occur (Hreljac, 2004). It has been estimated that up to 70% of runners will sustain an overuse injury during any one year period (Caspersen et al., 1984). Previous work has shown that impact forces and high loading rates are linked to injury rates in runners (Davis, Bowser, & Mullineaux, 2010). Despite the apparent advances in footwear technology and the plethora footwear choices available, we are yet to see a reduction in injury rates amongst runners

    Discrepancies in Knee Joint Moments Using Common Anatomical Frames Defined by Different Palpable Landmarks

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    The aim was to investigate the effects of three anatomical frames using palpable anatomical landmarks of the knee on the net knee joint moments. The femoral epicondyles, femoral condyles, and tibial ridges were used to define the different anatomical frames and the segment end points of the distal femur and proximal tibia, which represent the origin of the tibial coordinate system. Gait data were then collected using the calibrated anatomical system technique (CAST), and the external net knee joint moments in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes were calculated based upon the three anatomical frames. Peak knee moments were found to be significantly different in the sagittal plane by approximately 25% (p ≤0.05), but no significant differences were seen in the coronal or transverse planes. Based on these findings it is important to consider the definition of anatomical frames and be aware that the use of numerous anatomical landmarks around the knee can have significant effects on knee joint moments

    The influence of barefoot and shod running on Triceps-surae muscle strain characteristics

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    The aim of the current investigation was to determine the effects of barefoot and shod running on the kinematics of the Triceps-Surae muscle group. Twelve male participants ran at 4.0 m.s-1 (± 5%) in both barefoot and shod conditions. Kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system. Muscle kinematics from the lateral Gastrocnemius, medial Gastrocnemius and Soleus were obtained using musculoskeletal modelling software (Opensim v3.2). The results showed that muscle strain for the lateral Gastrocnemius (barefoot = 1.10 & shod = 0.33 %), medial Gastrocnemius (barefoot = 1.07 & shod = 0.32 %) and Soleus (barefoot = 3.43 & shod = 2.18 %) were significantly larger for the barefoot condition. Given the proposed association between the extent of muscle strain and the etiology of chronic muscle strain pathologies, the current investigation shows that running barefoot may place runners at greater risk from Triceps-Surae strain injuries

    Effects of minimalist and maximalist footwear on Achilles tendon load in recreational runners

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    The current investigation aimed to comparatively examine the effects of minimalist, maximalist and conventional footwear on Achilles tendon forces (ATF) during running. Twelve male runners (age 23.11±5.01 years, height 1.78±0.10 cm and body mass 77.13±7.89 kg) ran at 4.0 m/s in the three footwear conditions. ATF’s were calculated using Opensim software allowing the magnitudal and temporal aspects of the ATF to be quantified. Differences between footwear were examined using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The results showed the peak ATF was significantly larger in minimalist footwear (5.97±1.38 body weight (BW)) compared to maximalist (5.07±1.42 BW). In addition it was revealed that ATF per mile was significantly larger in minimalist (492.31±157.72 BW) in comparison to both maximalist (377.31±148.06 BW) and conventional (402.71±125.51 BW) footwear. Given the relationship between high ATF and Achilles tendon degradation, the current investigation indicated that minimalist footwear may increase runners risk for Achilles tendon injury

    Interview with Ebie and Jim Richards

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    In this interview with Julia Stringfellow, Ebie and Jim Richards, both class of 1948, discuss their time as students.https://lux.lawrence.edu/oralhistories/1018/thumbnail.jp

    Influence of a knee brace intervention on perceived pain and patellofemoral loading in recreational athletes

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    Background: The current investigation aimed to investigate the effects of an intervention using knee bracing on pain symptoms and patellofemoral loading in male and female recreational athletes. Methods: Twenty participants (11 males & 9 females) with patellofemoral pain were provided with a knee brace which they wore for a period of 2 weeks. Lower extremity kinematics and patellofemoral loading were obtained during three sport specific tasks, jog, cut and single leg hop. In addition their self-reported knee pain scoreswere examined using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Datawere collected before and after wearing the knee brace for 2 weeks. Findings: Significant reductions were found in the run and cut movements for peak patellofemoral force/pressure and in all movements for the peak knee abduction moment when wearing the brace. Significant improvements were also shown for Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale symptoms (pre: male= 70.27, female = 73.22 & post: male = 85.64, female = 82.44), pain (pre: male = 72.36, female = 78.89 & post: male = 85.73, female = 84.20), sport (pre: male = 60.18, female = 59.33 & post: male = 80.91, female =79.11), function and daily living (pre: male = 82.18, female = 86.00 & post: male = 88.91, female = 90.00) and quality of life (pre: male= 51.27, female= 54.89 & post: male= 69.36, female= 66.89). Interpretation:Male and female recreational athleteswho suffer frompatellofemoral pain can be advised to utilise knee bracing as a conservative method to reduce pain symptoms

    Zombies They Walk Among Us! Rethinking Consumer Capitalism

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    The purpose of this paper will be to describe how one would survive the zombie apocalypse from a philosophical perspective. This paper will draw on first generation critical theorist, Theodore Adorno to explicate the position. According to critical theory, the zombie apocalypse is already upon us. For Adorno, contemporary individuals in Western society live under the conditions of consumer capitalism. These individuals are manipulated by advertisements and the mass media into believing that the ideal way to relieve their inner frustrations is to mindlessly purchase goods and services that reflect their inner longings. Due to this constant manipulation, young people are ill-equipped with the tools required to think critically and evaluate both their own behaviours and the messages generated by advertisements. These individuals retain their human forms, but do not employ their mental faculties to engage in what truly makes them human (i.e. free, critical thought). Therefore, they are zombies in a figurative sense. This paper will propose that the only way to survive a zombie apocalypse of this sort would be for individuals to wake up and think critically for themselves about the socio-economic forces that manipulate the world in which they live. By becoming a free thinking, critical individual, a zombified person will awake human once again

    Reproducibilty of partial weight bearing

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    Objectives: To find out whether partial weight bearing can be reproduced and retained. Design: In vivo experiment in normal subjects. Intervention: Training for partial weight bearing (25% of body weight) using bathroom scales. Main outcome measurement: Reproducibility on force platform immediately after training and after 60 min. Results: Twelve subjects were asked to reproduce 25% of their body weight through either the dominant or non-dominant limb on force platform after three practice attempts on bathroom scales with concurrent visual feedback. No feedback was provided after the measurements on force plate. The process was repeated after 1 h without any practice sessions in the interim period to find out if the weight practised could be retained. The mean 0-min reading was found to be 25.9% of body weight while the mean 60-min reading was found to be 24.4%. The p-value for the difference between the two means was found to be 0.3841. Conclusions: This study indicates that partial weight bearing instructions can be quantified and graded. Simple bathroom scales are sufficient to educate the patients and this can be practised at home after an initial period of supervision

    Effects of foot orthoses on patellofemoral load in recreational runners

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    The most common chronic injury in recreational runners is patellofemoral pain. Whilst there is evidence to suggest that orthotic intervention may reduce symptoms in runners who experience patellofemoral pain the mechanism by which their clinical effects are mediated is currently poorly understood. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether foot orthoses reduce the loads experienced by the patellofemoral joint during running. Patellofemoral loads were obtained from fifteen male runners who ran at 4.0 m·s-1. Patellofemoral loads with and without orthotics were contrasted using paired t-tests. The results showed that patellofemoral joint loads were significantly reduced as a function of running with the orthotic device. The current investigation indicates that through reductions in patellofemoral loads, foot orthoses may serve to reduce the incidence of chronic running injuries at this joint

    A Biomechanical Investigation of Selected Lumbopelvic Hip Tests: Implications for the Examination of Walking

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    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare lumbopelvic hip ranges of motion during the Trendelenburg, Single Leg Squat, and Corkscrew Tests to walking and to describe the 3-dimensional lumbopelvic hip motion during the tests. This may help clinicians to select appropriate tests when examining gait. Methods: An optoelectronic movement analysis tracking system was used to assess the lumbopelvic hip region of 14 healthy participants while performing Trendelenburg, Single Leg Squat, and Corkscrew Tests and walking. The lumbopelvic hip 3-dimensional ranges of movement for the clinical tests were compared with walking using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with pairwise comparisons. Results No significant differences were found between the pelvic obliquity during the Trendelenburg Test and walking (Trendelenburg Test: L, 11.3° ± 4.8°, R, 10.8° ± 5.0° vs walk: L, 8.3° ± 4.8°, R 8.3° ± 5.1°, L, P = .143, R, P = .068). Significant differences were found between the hip sagittal plane range of movement during the Single Leg Squat and walking (Single Leg Squat: L, 44.2° ± 13.7°, R, 41.7° ± 10.9° vs walk: 38.6° ± 7.0°, R 37.8° ± 5.1°, P < .05), the hip coronal plane range of movement (Single Leg Squat: L, 9.1° ± 5.8°, R, 9.0° ± 4.6° vs walk: L, 9.4° ± 2.3°, R 9.5° ± 2.0°, P < .05), and the hip coronal plane range of movement during the Corkscrew Test and walking (Corkscrew: L, 5.7° ± 3.3°, R, 5.7° ± 3.2° vs walk: L, 9.4° ± 2.3°, R 9.5° ± 2.0°, P < .05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that, in young asymptomatic participants with no known lumbopelvic hip pathology, the pelvic obliquity during the Trendelenburg Test and walking is similar. During the Single Leg Squat, the hip moved more in the sagittal plane and less in the coronal plane when compared with walking. There was more movement in the hip transverse plane movement during the Corkscrew Test than during walking. These results suggest that for the Trendelenburg Test to be interpreted as normal, the pelvis should achieve at least 10° of pelvic obliquity; during the Single Leg Squat, the hip should move through 43° in the sagittal plane and under 10° in the coronal plane; and for the Corkscrew Test to be interpreted as normal, the hip should move through 6° of rotation and the trunk through 27° of rotation
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