501 research outputs found

    Dynamics and scaling in the periodic Anderson model

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    The periodic Anderson model (PAM) captures the essential physics of heavy fermion materials. Yet even for the paramagnetic metallic phase, a practicable many-body theory that can simultaneously handle all energy scales while respecting the dictates of Fermi liquid theory at low energies, and all interaction strengths from the strongly correlated Kondo lattice through to weak coupling, has remained quite elusive. Aspects of this problem are considered in the present paper where a non-perturbative local moment approach (LMA) to single-particle dynamics of the asymmetric PAM is developed within the general framework of dynamical mean-field theory. All interaction strengths and energy scales are encompassed, although our natural focus is the Kondo lattice regime of essentially localized ff-spins but general conduction band filling, characterised by an exponentially small lattice coherence scale ωL\omega_{L}. Particular emphasis is given to the resultant universal scaling behaviour of dynamics in the Kondo lattice regime as an entire function of ω=ω/ωL\omega^{\prime} =\omega/\omega_{L}, including its dependence on conduction band filling, ff-level asymmetry and lattice type.A rich description arises, encompassing both coherent Fermi liquid behaviour at low-ω\omega^{\prime} and the crossover to effective single-impurity scaling physics at higher energies -- but still in the ω/ωL\omega/\omega_{L}-scaling regime, and as such incompatible with the presence of two-scale `exhaustion' physics, which is likewise discussed.Comment: 22 pages in EPJB format, 14 figures; accepted for publication in EPJB; (small change in the comments section, no change in manuscript

    Limit Distributions of Self-Normalized Sums

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    If Xi are i.i.d. and have zero mean and arbitrary finite variance the limiting probability distribution of Sn(2) =(∑ni=1 Xi)/(∑nj=1Xj2)1/2 as n→∞ has density f(t) = (2π)−1/2 exp(−t2/2) by the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers. If the tails of Xi are sufficiently smooth and satisfy P(Xi \u3e t) ∼ rt−α and P(Xi \u3c −t) ∼ lt−α as t→∞, where 0 \u3c α \u3c 2, r \u3e 0, l \u3e 0, Sn(2) still has a limiting distribution F even though Xi has infinite variance. The density f of F depends on α as well as on r/l. We also study the limiting distribution of the more general Sn(p) = (∑ni=1Xi)/(∑nj=1 |Xj|p)1/p where Xi are i.i.d. and in the domain of a stable law G with tails as above. In the cases p = 2 (see (4.21)) and p = 1 (see (3.7)) we obtain exact, computable formulas for f(t) = f(t,α,r/l), and give graphs of f for a number of values of α and r/l. For p = 2, we find that f is always symmetric about zero on (−1,1), even though f is symmetric on (−∞,∞) only when r = l

    A novel piggyback strategy for mRNA delivery exploiting adenovirus entry biology

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    Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied piggyback transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to actualize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics

    Situation of HIV infections and STIs in the United Kingdom in 2007.

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    In the United Kingdom (UK) in 2007, an estimated 77,400 persons were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of whom 28% are unaware of their infection. A total of 7,734 persons were newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2007, of which 31% were diagnosed late. This highlights the need for wider HIV testing, especially in those areas with a high diagnosed prevalence, as recommended in recent national guidelines. Among newly diagnosed cases of HIV in 2007, 41% acquired their infection through sex between men (four in five of whom acquired their infection in the UK) and 55% through heterosexual contact (four in five of whom acquired their infection abroad, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa). Young persons aged 16 to 24 years are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) accounting for 65% of genital chlamydia infections, 50% of cases of genital warts and 50% of cases of gonorrhoea that were diagnosed in 2007

    Frictional behavior of oceanic transform faults and its influence on earthquake characteristics

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    Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 117 (2012): B04315, doi:10.1029/2011JB009025.We use a three-dimensional strike-slip fault model in the framework of rate and state-dependent friction to investigate earthquake behavior and scaling relations on oceanic transform faults (OTFs). Gabbro friction data under hydrothermal conditions are mapped onto OTFs using temperatures from (1) a half-space cooling model, and (2) a thermal model that incorporates a visco-plastic rheology, non-Newtonian viscous flow and the effects of shear heating and hydrothermal circulation. Without introducing small-scale frictional heterogeneities on the fault, our model predicts that an OTF segment can transition between seismic and aseismic slip over many earthquake cycles, consistent with the multimode hypothesis for OTF ruptures. The average seismic coupling coefficient χ is strongly dependent on the ratio of seismogenic zone width W to earthquake nucleation size h*; χ increases by four orders of magnitude as W/h* increases from ∼1 to 2. Specifically, the average χ = 0.15 ± 0.05 derived from global OTF earthquake catalogs can be reached at W/h* ≈ 1.2–1.7. Further, in all simulations the area of the largest earthquake rupture is less than the total seismogenic area and we predict a deficiency of large earthquakes on long transforms, which is also consistent with observations. To match these observations over this narrow range of W/h* requires an increase in the characteristic slip distance dc as the seismogenic zone becomes wider and normal stress is higher on long transforms. Earthquake magnitude and distribution on the Gofar and Romanche transforms are better predicted by simulations using the visco-plastic model than the half-space cooling model.This work was supported by NSF-EAR award 1015221, NSF-OCE award 1061203, and a J. Lamar Worzel Assistant Scientist Fund to Y. Liu at WHOI.2012-10-2

    Identification of Babesia bovis merozoite antigens separated by continuous-flow electrophoresis that stimulate proliferation of helper T-cell clones derived from B. bovis-immune cattle.

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    To characterize Babesia bovis merozoite antigens that stimulate anamnestic T helper (Th)-cell responses from B. bovis-immune cattle, B. bovis-specific Th-cell lines and clones, previously assigned to different antigenic groups (W. C. Brown, S. Zhao, A. C. Rice-Ficht, K. S. Logan, and V. M. Woods, Infect. Immun. 60:4364-4372, 1992), were tested in proliferation assays against fractionated merozoite antigens. The antigenic groups were determined by the patterns of response of Th clones to different parasite isolates and soluble or membrane forms of merozoite antigen. Soluble antigen fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography or gel filtration by using fast-performance liquid chromatography resolved two or three antigenic peaks, respectively. To enable fractionation of membrane-associated proteins and to resolve more precisely the proteins present in homogenized merozoites, a novel technique of continuous-flow electrophoresis was employed. Merozoite membranes or whole merozoites were homogenized and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate-sample buffer, electrophoresed under reducing conditions on 15% or 10% acrylamide gels, eluted, and collected as fractions. Individual fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tested for the ability to stimulate Babesia-specific CD4+ T-cell lines and clones. CD4+ Th-cell lines from two cattle displayed differential patterns of reactivity and detected numerous peaks of antigenic activity, ranging from < 14 to 76 kDa. Th-cell clones previously categorized into different antigenic groups detected antigenic peaks unique for clones representative of a given group. Antigens of 29, 51 to 52, and 85 to 95 kDa (group I), 40 kDa (group III), 20 kDa (group IV), 58 to 60 kDa (group VI), and 38, 45, and 83 kDa (group VII) were identified in the stimulatory fractions. Immunization of rabbits with selected fractions produced a panel of antisera that reacted specifically on Western blots (immunoblots) with merozoite antigens of similar sizes, leading to the tentative identification of candidate antigens of B. bovis merozoites with molecular masses of 20, 40, 44, 51 to 52 or 95, and 58 to 60 kDa that stimulate proliferation of Th clones representative of five different antigenic groups. These antisera may be useful for isolating recombinant proteins that are immunogenic for Th cells of immune cattle and therefore potentially useful for vaccine development

    orbitize!: A Comprehensive Orbit-fitting Software Package for the High-contrast Imaging Community

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    orbitize! is an open-source, object-oriented software package for fitting the orbits of directly imaged objects. It packages the Orbits for the Impatient (OFTI) algorithm and a parallel-tempered Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm into a consistent and intuitive Python API. orbitize! makes it easy to run standard astrometric orbit fits; in less than 10 lines of code, users can read in data, perform one fit using OFTI and another using MCMC, and make two publication-ready figures. Extensive pedagogical tutorials, intended to be navigable by both orbit-fitting novices and seasoned experts, are available on our documentation page. We have designed the orbitize! API to be flexible and easy to use/modify for unique cases. orbitize! was designed by members of the exoplanet imaging community to be a central repository for algorithms, techniques, and know-how developed by this community. We intend for it to continue to expand and change as the field progresses and new techniques are developed, and call for community involvement in this process. Complete and up-to-date documentation is available at orbitize.info, and the source code is available at github.com/sblunt/orbitize

    Cerebellar-dependent delay eyeblink conditioning in adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

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    Cerebellar impairments have been hypothesized as part of the pathogenesis of Specific Language Impairment (SLI), although direct evidence of cerebellar involvement is sparse. Eyeblink Conditioning (EBC) is a learning task with well documented cerebellar pathways. This is the first study of EBC in affected adolescents and controls. 16 adolescent controls, 15 adolescents with SLI, and 12 adult controls participated in a delay EBC task. Affected children had low general language performance, grammatical deficits but no speech impairments. The affected group did not differ from the control adolescent or control adult group, showing intact cerebellar functioning on the EBC task. This study did not support cerebellar impairment at the level of basic learning pathways as part of the pathogenesis of SLI. Outcomes do not rule out cerebellar influences on speech impairment, or possible other forms of cerebellar functioning as contributing to SLI

    Absence of hysteresis at the Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition in infinite dimensions

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    The nature of the Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the infinite-dimensional Hubbard model is investigated by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations down to temperature T=W/140 (W=bandwidth). Calculating with significantly higher precision than in previous work, we show that the hysteresis below T_{IPT}\simeq 0.022W, reported in earlier studies, disappears. Hence the transition is found to be continuous rather than discontinuous down to at least T=0.325T_{IPT}. We also study the changes in the density of states across the transition, which illustrate that the Fermi liquid breaks down before the gap opens.Comment: 4 pages, 4 eps-figures using epsf.st
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