146 research outputs found

    Editorial for REGET Journal

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    An√°lise do volume de sedimentos assoreados e da taxa de urbaniza√ß√£o em bacias hidrogr√°ficas urbanas : estudo de caso Reservat√≥rio M√£e d‚Äô√Āgua

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    The M√£e d`√Āgua reservoir is the mouth of four streams, corresponding to an area of 352 ha and is located in the Vale Campus of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The study area is currently predominantly characterized by a residential occupation, with environmental liabilities coming from diffuse sources. The application of the methodology for computational modeling in the M√£e d'√Āgua reservoir, inferring about the useful volume of the project in 1962, useful volume in 2014, and the silting volume was developed with the aid of the following software: AutoCAD 2018, AutoCAD Civil 3D 2018, and Google Earth which specialize in the field of geoprocessing and guidelines for the calculations that use as base the data regarding the survey and processing of field data. Two types of remote sensing products were used to evaluate the evolution of urbanization in the study area: aerial photographs and satellite images which were integrated in a geographic database. Through the results, it was possible to verify that the silting volume occupies approximately 44% of the useful volume of the reservoir, the urbanization rate has growth trends, and, 88.42% of the river basin was urbanized in 2014. Thus, it represents a spatial distribution and establishes correlations between sedimentation studies over the last five decades.A barragem M√£e d`√Āgua √© o exut√≥rio de quatro arroios, correspondendo a uma √°rea de 352 ha e se situa no Campus do Vale da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. No presente momento a √°rea de estudo encontra-se predominantemente caracterizada por uma ocupa√ß√£o residencial, com passivos ambientais advindos de fontes difusas. Aplica√ß√£o da metodologia para a modelagem computacional no reservat√≥rio M√£e D‚Äô√Āgua inferindo sobre o volume √ļtil de projeto em 1962, volume √ļtil em 2014 e o volume de assoreamento, foi desenvolvida com o aux√≠lio de softwares: AutoCad 2018, AutoCad Civil 3D 2018 e Google Earth, que s√£o especializados no campo do geoprocessamento e diretrizes para os c√°lculos que utilizam como base os dados referentes ao levantamento e processamento dos dados de campo. Para a avalia√ß√£o da evolu√ß√£o da urbaniza√ß√£o na √°rea de estudo foram utilizados dois tipos de produtos de sensoriamento remoto: fotografias a√©reas e imagens de sat√©lite, que foram integradas em um banco de dados geogr√°ficos. Atrav√©s dos resultados, foi poss√≠vel constatar que o volume do assoreamento ocupa aproximadamente 44 % do volume √ļtil do reservat√≥rio e a taxa de urbaniza√ß√£o com tend√™ncias de crescimento e para o ano de 2014 com 88,42 % da bacia urbanizada, configurando, portanto, uma distribui√ß√£o espacial e estabelecendo correla√ß√Ķes entre os estudos da sedimenta√ß√£o ao longo das √ļltimas cinco d√©cadas

    Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

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    Concentrations and enrichment of metals in sediment cores : geochemistry and correlations with geoaccumulation index

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    The M√£e d‚Äô√Āgua dam was built in 1962 to supply the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul‚Äôs water demanding. Thus, the paper aims to measure Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn) concentrations in many depths of the dam‚Äôs bottom, sampling cores of sediments silted in it. The samplings were carried out in June, 2014, and it was sampled four sediment cores in pre-defined points of the dam. The methodology for extraction of sediment cores was ‚ÄėPiston Core‚Äô. Sediment particles smaller than 63 őľm were separated and used for chemical analysis. EPA 3050 acid digestion methodology is used by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency and it was also used in this study. Analyses were carried out in duplicate and two USGS reference materials were used for quality control: SGR-1b and SCO-1. Zn and Ni concentrations were over than local background values and increasing concentrations of the deepest sendiments to the most recent layers as a result of urbanization activities. Geoaccumulation index was able to characterize decreasing of metal concentrations in depth.A barragem M√£e d'√Āgua, foi constru√≠da em 1962, a fim de atender √† demanda da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Assim, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar as concentra√ß√Ķes de Zn e Ni em diferentes profundidades amostradas no n√ļcleo de sedimentos produzidos nesta bacia hidrogr√°fica. As coletas das amostras foram realizadas em junho de 2014, sendo amostrados quatro n√ļcleos de sedimentos distribu√≠dos no lago da barragem. Para a extra√ß√£o dos sedimentos de fundo foi utilizado um amostrador core Piston Core. Os sedimentos da fra√ß√£o menor que 63 őľm foram destinados √† an√°lise qu√≠mica para verifica√ß√£o da presen√ßa e concentra√ß√£o dos elementos tra√ßo: N√≠quel (Ni) e Zinco (Zn). A metodologia de digest√£o √°cida empregada √© a EPA 3050, adotada pela U.S. Environment Protection Agency, sendo que as an√°lises foram realizadas em duplicata e, para controle de qualidade, foram utilizados dois materiais de refer√™ncia da USGS (U.S. Geological Survey): SGR-1b e SCO-1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as concentra√ß√Ķes de Zn e Ni nas amostras apresentaram-se acima do valor de background local e com padr√Ķes de crescimento, conjuntamente, o √≠ndice geoacumula√ß√£o evidencia a exist√™ncia de enriquecimento dos sedimentos por estes elementos provavelmente devido √†s atividades urbaniza√ß√£o locais

    An√°lise do volume de sedimentos assoreados e da taxa de urbaniza√ß√£o em bacias hidrogr√°ficas urbanas; estudo de caso Reservat√≥rio M√£e d‚Äô√Āgua

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    The M√£e d`√Āgua reservoir is the mouth of four streams, corresponding to an area of 352 ha and is located in the Vale Campus of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The study area is currently predominantly characterized by a residential occupation, with environmental liabilities coming from diffuse sources. The application of the methodology for computational modeling in the M√£e d'√Āgua reservoir, inferring about the useful volume of the project in 1962, useful volume in 2014, and the silting volume was developed with the aid of the following software: AutoCAD 2018, AutoCAD Civil 3D 2018, and Google Earth which specialize in the field of geoprocessing and guidelines for the calculations that use as base the data regarding the survey and processing of field data. Two types of remote sensing products were used to evaluate the evolution of urbanization in the study area: aerial photographs and satellite images which were integrated in a geographic database. Through the results, it was possible to verify that the silting volume occupies approximately 44% of the useful volume of the reservoir, the urbanization rate has growth trends, and, 88.42% of the river basin was urbanized in 2014. Thus, it represents a spatial distribution and establishes correlations between sedimentation studies over the last five decades.A barragem M√£e d`√Āgua √© o exut√≥rio de quatro arroios, correspondendo a uma √°rea de 352 ha e se situa no Campus do Vale da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. No presente momento a √°rea de estudo encontra-se predominantemente caracterizada por uma ocupa√ß√£o residencial, com passivos ambientais advindos de fontes difusas. Aplica√ß√£o da metodologia para a modelagem computacional no reservat√≥rio M√£e D‚Äô√Āgua inferindo sobre o volume √ļtil de projeto em 1962, volume √ļtil em 2014 e o volume de assoreamento, foi desenvolvida com o aux√≠lio de softwares: AutoCad 2018, AutoCad Civil 3D 2018 e Google Earth, que s√£o especializados no campo do geoprocessamento e diretrizes para os c√°lculos que utilizam como base os dados referentes ao levantamento e processamento dos dados de campo. Para a avalia√ß√£o da evolu√ß√£o da urbaniza√ß√£o na √°rea de estudo foram utilizados dois tipos de produtos de sensoriamento remoto: fotografias a√©reas e imagens de sat√©lite, que foram integradas em um banco de dados geogr√°ficos.¬† Atrav√©s dos resultados, foi poss√≠vel constatar que o volume do assoreamento ocupa aproximadamente 44 % do volume √ļtil do reservat√≥rio e a taxa de urbaniza√ß√£o com tend√™ncias de crescimento e para o ano de 2014 com 88,42 % da bacia urbanizada, configurando, portanto, uma distribui√ß√£o espacial e estabelecendo correla√ß√Ķes entre os estudos da sedimenta√ß√£o ao longo das √ļltimas cinco d√©cadas

    EVOLUTION OF ENRICHMENT OF SEDIMENTS BY TRACE METALS (Ni AND Zn) IN A DAM OF URBANIZED WATERSHED

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    Sediments represent and provide a response to the condition of the environmental system in which they are found, acting as a point for deposition of contaminants. Upon developing studies of sediment columns, it is possible to obtain the historic records of substances arising from activities developed in the watershed over recent years. In this context, the present study investigates the enrichment of the sediments produced in an urban residential catchment area by the trace metals zinc and nickel. The sediment fraction smaller than 63 őľm was analyzed in three sediment cores from the dam. Chemical analyses verified the concentration of trace metals by the acid digestion method EPA 3050. In carrying out analyses of the evolution of urban settlement in the watershed, the values corresponding to natural and human-impacted areas were determined through the use of different remote sensing products: aerial photographs (from 1972 and 1991) and high resolution satellite images (from 2003 and 2008). Natural areas were reduced in four decades, and population density in already human-impacted areas proved to be an important factor for understanding the urbanization process of the area. All sediment samples analyzed showed Zn and Ni concentrations above the local background value and with a pattern of growt

    Urban Street Pollutants

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    The sediments carried by runoff water are an important part of this process because their presence in the bodies of water not only cause sedimentation problems but, mainly, they contaminate the water due to the presence of the pollutants found associated with sediments. The urban subwatershed under study is located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. This paper aims to present the relation between pollutants on the street sediments and in suspended sediment sampled in the river. The collections of suspended sediment samples begun in the end of 2003 and finished in the end of 2006. Collections of urban dust samples (47 samples per km²) were taken in the main diffuse sources of the urban environment, represented by paved and non-paved streets, beyond the area with remaining vegetation, in some points of the bed river and in its margins. During these analyses, it was studied 29 samples of fluvial suspended sediments. The elements selected for this study are some of the most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas (Zn, Pb and Cu). The results suggest it is occurring a high enrichment of the local sediment with these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due the input of road runoff containing elevated concentrations of elements associated with vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. In general, they have their most concentrations on the streets but they are carried to the channel during the storms.The sediments carried by runoff water are an important part of this process because their presence in the bodies of water not only cause sedimentation problems but, mainly, they contaminate the water due to the presence of the pollutants found associated with sediments. The urban subwatershed under study is located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. This paper aims to present the relation between pollutants on the street sediments and in suspended sediment sampled in the river. The collections of suspended sediment samples begun in the end of 2003 and finished in the end of 2006. Collections of urban dust samples (47 samples per km²) were taken in the main diffuse sources of the urban environment, represented by paved and non-paved streets, beyond the area with remaining vegetation, in some points of the bed river and in its margins. During these analyses, it was studied 29 samples of fluvial suspended sediments. The elements selected for this study are some of the most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas (Zn, Pb and Cu). The results suggest it is occurring a high enrichment of the local sediment with these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due the input of road runoff containing elevated concentrations of elements associated with vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. In general, they have their most concentrations on the streets but they are carried to the channel during the storms

    Aumento da desertifica√ß√£o na Patag√īnia Argentina : interfer√™ncias antr√≥picas

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    The United Nations [UN] declared 2015 as the International Year of Soils and hopes that this initiative will serve to mobilize society for the importance of soil as a key part of the environment and the dangers surrounding their degradation in the world. The work will address the desertification process in Argentinian Patagonia, in order to intensify this process over time by human occupation. For this analysis, we used historical and current references, addressing an evolutionary outlook, illustrated with maps and quantitative data. The methodology focused on analysis of the first records of the phenomenon, identification and perception of it as a problem that has natural characteristics, but this is powered by anthropic processes with a soil occupation which is different from what the environment would bear with exploration of possibilities that did not consider the native vegetation and the natural system. The results identified point to a sheep and cattle herd growth in parallel with the evolution of desertification. It is possible to mention the characters responsible for such changes, which result in an environmental, social and economic imbalance, and alternatives for the process to be attenuated or mitigated are suggested.A Organiza√ß√£o das Na√ß√Ķes Unidas [ONU] decretou 2015 como o Ano Internacional dos Solos e espera que a iniciativa sirva para mobilizar a sociedade para a import√Ęncia dos solos como parte fundamental do meio ambiente e os perigos que envolvem a degrada√ß√£o deles em todo o mundo. O trabalho abordar√° o processo de desertifica√ß√£o na Patag√īnia Argentina, observando-se a intensifica√ß√£o desse processo ao longo do tempo pela ocupa√ß√£o humana. Para esta an√°lise, foram utilizadas refer√™ncias bibliogr√°ficas hist√≥ricas e atuais, que abordam um panorama evolutivo, ilustrado com mapas e dados quantitativos. A metodologia concentrou-se na an√°lise dos primeiros registros do fen√īmeno, na identifica√ß√£o e na percep√ß√£o do mesmo como um problema que apresenta caracter√≠sticas naturais, por√©m est√° sendo potencializado por meio de processos antr√≥picos com uma ocupa√ß√£o do solo divergente da que o meio ambiente suportaria, com possibilidades de explora√ß√£o que n√£o consideraram a vegeta√ß√£o nativa e o sistema natural. Os resultados identificados apontam para um crescimento do rebanho de ovinos e bovinos em paralelo com a evolu√ß√£o do processo de desertifica√ß√£o. Podem-se apontar os personagens respons√°veis pelas modifica√ß√Ķes, que resultam em um desequil√≠brio ambiental, social e econ√īmico, e sugerem-se alternativas para que o processo seja atenuado ou mitigado
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