4,097 research outputs found

    A Map of Update Constraints in Inductive Inference

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    We investigate how different learning restrictions reduce learning power and how the different restrictions relate to one another. We give a complete map for nine different restrictions both for the cases of complete information learning and set-driven learning. This completes the picture for these well-studied \emph{delayable} learning restrictions. A further insight is gained by different characterizations of \emph{conservative} learning in terms of variants of \emph{cautious} learning. Our analyses greatly benefit from general theorems we give, for example showing that learners with exclusively delayable restrictions can always be assumed total.Comment: fixed a mistake in Theorem 21, result is the sam

    Combining Models of Approximation with Partial Learning

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    In Gold's framework of inductive inference, the model of partial learning requires the learner to output exactly one correct index for the target object and only the target object infinitely often. Since infinitely many of the learner's hypotheses may be incorrect, it is not obvious whether a partial learner can be modifed to "approximate" the target object. Fulk and Jain (Approximate inference and scientific method. Information and Computation 114(2):179--191, 1994) introduced a model of approximate learning of recursive functions. The present work extends their research and solves an open problem of Fulk and Jain by showing that there is a learner which approximates and partially identifies every recursive function by outputting a sequence of hypotheses which, in addition, are also almost all finite variants of the target function. The subsequent study is dedicated to the question how these findings generalise to the learning of r.e. languages from positive data. Here three variants of approximate learning will be introduced and investigated with respect to the question whether they can be combined with partial learning. Following the line of Fulk and Jain's research, further investigations provide conditions under which partial language learners can eventually output only finite variants of the target language. The combinabilities of other partial learning criteria will also be briefly studied.Comment: 28 page

    A Description Logic of Typicality for Conceptual Combination

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    We propose a nonmonotonic Description Logic of typicality able to account for the phenomenon of combining prototypical concepts, an open problem in the fields of AI and cognitive modelling. Our logic extends the logic of typicality ALC + TR, based on the notion of rational closure, by inclusions p :: T(C) v D (“we have probability p that typical Cs are Ds”), coming from the distributed semantics of probabilistic Description Logics. Additionally, it embeds a set of cognitive heuristics for concept combination. We show that the complexity of reasoning in our logic is EXPTIME-complete as in ALC

    Experimental Evidence for Quantum Structure in Cognition

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    We proof a theorem that shows that a collection of experimental data of membership weights of items with respect to a pair of concepts and its conjunction cannot be modeled within a classical measure theoretic weight structure in case the experimental data contain the effect called overextension. Since the effect of overextension, analogue to the well-known guppy effect for concept combinations, is abundant in all experiments testing weights of items with respect to pairs of concepts and their conjunctions, our theorem constitutes a no-go theorem for classical measure structure for common data of membership weights of items with respect to concepts and their combinations. We put forward a simple geometric criterion that reveals the non classicality of the membership weight structure and use experimentally measured membership weights estimated by subjects in experiments to illustrate our geometrical criterion. The violation of the classical weight structure is similar to the violation of the well-known Bell inequalities studied in quantum mechanics, and hence suggests that the quantum formalism and hence the modeling by quantum membership weights can accomplish what classical membership weights cannot do.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figure

    Classical Logical versus Quantum Conceptual Thought: Examples in Economics, Decision theory and Concept Theory

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    Inspired by a quantum mechanical formalism to model concepts and their disjunctions and conjunctions, we put forward in this paper a specific hypothesis. Namely that within human thought two superposed layers can be distinguished: (i) a layer given form by an underlying classical deterministic process, incorporating essentially logical thought and its indeterministic version modeled by classical probability theory; (ii) a layer given form under influence of the totality of the surrounding conceptual landscape, where the different concepts figure as individual entities rather than (logical) combinations of others, with measurable quantities such as 'typicality', 'membership', 'representativeness', 'similarity', 'applicability', 'preference' or 'utility' carrying the influences. We call the process in this second layer 'quantum conceptual thought', which is indeterministic in essence, and contains holistic aspects, but is equally well, although very differently, organized than logical thought. A substantial part of the 'quantum conceptual thought process' can be modeled by quantum mechanical probabilistic and mathematical structures. We consider examples of three specific domains of research where the effects of the presence of quantum conceptual thought and its deviations from classical logical thought have been noticed and studied, i.e. economics, decision theory, and concept theories and which provide experimental evidence for our hypothesis.Comment: 14 page

    Meaning-focused and Quantum-inspired Information Retrieval

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    In recent years, quantum-based methods have promisingly integrated the traditional procedures in information retrieval (IR) and natural language processing (NLP). Inspired by our research on the identification and application of quantum structures in cognition, more specifically our work on the representation of concepts and their combinations, we put forward a 'quantum meaning based' framework for structured query retrieval in text corpora and standardized testing corpora. This scheme for IR rests on considering as basic notions, (i) 'entities of meaning', e.g., concepts and their combinations and (ii) traces of such entities of meaning, which is how documents are considered in this approach. The meaning content of these 'entities of meaning' is reconstructed by solving an 'inverse problem' in the quantum formalism, consisting of reconstructing the full states of the entities of meaning from their collapsed states identified as traces in relevant documents. The advantages with respect to traditional approaches, such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), are discussed by means of concrete examples.Comment: 11 page

    PRORAČUN ČELIČNIH TANKOSTIJENIH NOSAČA PREMA EN 1993-1-3

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    Osnovni problem čeličnih tankostijenih nosača, lokalni instabilitet dijelova poprečnog presjeka koji se nalaze u tlaku, može se riješiti povoljnim profiliranjem (ukrućivanjem) poprečnog presjeka nosača. Optimizacijom rasporeda ukrućenja u poprečnom presjeku može se u potpunosti spriječiti lokalni instabilitet te time povećati otpornost nosača bez dodatnog utroška materijala.Veliki utjecaj na otpornost ovakvih nosača, osim ukrućenja, može imati i pridržanje pojasnice profiliranim limom. U članku su prikazani normirani postupci kojima se na brz i jednostavan način može proračunati utjecaj ukrućenja i utjecaj pridržanja pojasnice nosača pokrovnim limom. Konkretnim primjerom kvantificiran je utjecaj ukrućenja i pridržanja pojasnice C podrožnice trapeznim limom. Naglašene su mogućnosti suvremene norme EN 1993-1-3, koje uz malo dodatnog projektantskog napora na jednostavan način omogućuju znatnu uštedu koja se može polučiti iz realnog razmatranja tankostijenih profila
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