2,986 research outputs found

    Matter and Interactions: a particle physics perspective

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    In classical mechanics matter and fields are completely separated. Matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case. Both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this paper we explain why particle physicists believe in such a picture, introducing the technique of Feynman diagrams starting from very basic and popular analogies with classical mechanics, making the physics of elementary particles comprehensible even to high school students, the only prerequisite being the knowledge of the conservation of mechanical energy.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures, Lecture given to degree students other than physicists during outreach seminars. Vers. 2 has better figure placement and an acknowledge section, as well as corrections in the bibliograh

    Unveiling the Higgs mechanism to students

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    In this paper we give the outline of a lecture given to undergraduate students aiming at understanding why physicists are so much interested in the Higgs boson. The lecture has been conceived for students not yet familiar with advanced physics and is suitable for several disciplines, other than physics. The Higgs mechanism is introduced by semi-classical arguments mimicking the basic field theory concepts, assuming the validity of a symmetry principle in the expression of the energy of particles in a classical field. The lecture is divided in two parts: the first, suitable even to high--school students, shows how the mass of a particle results as a dynamical effect due to the interaction between a massless particle and a field (as in the Higgs mechanism). The audience of the second part, much more technical, consists mainly of teachers and university students of disciplines other than physics.Comment: mistake corrected in equation (2) and below thanks to Loic Turba

    Effectiveness of a laboratory course with Arduino and smartphones

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    Arduino and Smartphones have been used since 2021 in a class of practicals held at Sapienza Università di Roma, to train physics undergraduates in laboratory activities. This paper briefly describes the organisation of the activities and report about the results of questionnaires administered to participating students before and after the course

    Magnetic fields produced by electric railways

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    We propose a simple experiment to explore magnetic fields created by electric railways and compare them with a simple model and parameters estimated using easily available information. A pedestrian walking on an overpass above train tracks registers the components of the magnetic field with the built-in magnetometer of a smartphone. The experimental results are successfully compared with a model of the magnetic field of the transmission lines and the local Earth's magnetic field. This experiment, suitable for a field trip, involves several abilities, such as modeling the magnetic field of power lines, looking up reliable information and estimating non-easily accessible quantities.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, some typos correcte

    ECAL Front-End Monitoring in the CMS experiment

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    The CMS detector at LHC is equipped with a high precision lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL). The front-end boards and the photodetectors are monitored using a network of DCU (Detector Control Unit) chips located on the detector electronics. The DCU data are accessible through token rings controlled by an XDAQ based software component. Relevant parameters are transferred to DCS (Detector Control System) and stored into the Condition DataBase. The operational experience from the ECAL commissioning at the CMS experimental cavern is discussed and summarized

    High Voltage System for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is made of about 75000 lead tungstate crystals. The 61200 crystals of the barrel part are read by avalanche photodiodes (APD) with internal amplification of the signal. Since the gain strongly depends on the bias voltage, the APDs require a very stable power supply system. To preserve the high energy resolution of the calorimeter, a stability of the bias voltage of the order of 10^-4 is required over several months, a typical interval between absolute calibrations of the full read-out chain with physics events. This paper describes the High Voltage power supply system developed for CMS ECAL and its performances as measured in laboratory tests and during test-beam operations of several modules of the calorimeter
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