23,303 research outputs found

    Spin Observables for Polarizing Antiprotons

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    The PAX project at GSI Darmstadt plans to polarize an antiproton beam by repeated interaction with a hydrogen target in a storage ring. Many of the beam particles are required to remain within the ring after interaction with the target, so small scattering angles are important. Hence we concentrate on low momentum transfer (small t), a region where electromagnetic effects dominate the hadronic effects. A colliding beam of polarized electrons with energy sufficient to provide scattering of antiprotons beyond ring acceptance may polarize an antiproton beam by spin filtering. Expressions for spin observables are provided and are used to estimate the rate of buildup of polarization of an antiproton beam.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, to be published in the Proceedings of the 17th International Spin Physics Symposium (SPIN 2006), Kyoto, Japan; October 2-7, 200

    Dynamics of polarization buildup by spin filtering

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    There has been much recent research into polarizing an antiproton beam, instigated by the recent proposal from the PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) project at GSI Darmstadt. It plans to polarize an antiproton beam by repeated interaction with a polarized internal target in a storage ring. The method of polarization by spin filtering requires many of the beam particles to remain within the ring after scattering off the polarized internal target via electromagnetic and hadronic interactions. We present and solve sets of differential equations which describe the buildup of polarization by spin filtering in many different scenarios of interest to projects planning to produce high intensity polarized beams. These scenarios are: 1) spin filtering of a fully stored beam, 2) spin filtering while the beam is being accumulated, i.e. unpolarized particles are continuously being fed into the beam, 3) the particle input rate is equal to the rate at which particles are being lost due to scattering beyond ring acceptance angle, the beam intensity remaining constant, 4) increasing the initial polarization of a stored beam by spin filtering, 5) the input of particles into the beam is stopped after a certain amount of time, but spin filtering continues. The rate of depolarization of a stored polarized beam on passing through an electron cooler is also shown to be negligible.Comment: 15 pages, references added, introduction elaborated on, some variables defined in more detail. Submitted to Eur. Phys. J.

    Structures Produced by the Collision of Extragalactic Jets with Dense Clouds

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    We have investigated how several parameters can affect the results of a collision between an extragalactic jet and a dense, intergalactic cloud, through a series of hydrodynamic simulations. Such collisions are often suggested to explain the distorted structures of some radio jets. However, theoretical studies of this mechanism are in conflict over whether it can actually reproduce the observations. The parameters are the Mach number, and the relative densities of the jet and the cloud to the ambient medium. Using a simple prescription we have produced synthetic radio images for comparison with observations. These show that a variety of structures may be produced from simple jet-cloud collisions. We illustrate this with a few examples, and examine the details in one case. In most cases we do not see a clear, sustained deflection. Lighter jets are completely disrupted. The most powerful jets produce a hotspot at the impact which outshines any jet emission and erode the cloud too quickly to develop a deflected arm. It appears that moderate Mach numbers and density contrasts are needed to produce bends in the radio structure. This explains the apparent conflict between theoretical studies, as conclusions were based on different values of these parameters. Shocks are produced in the ambient medium that might plausibly reproduce the observed alignment of the extended emission line regions with the radio axis.Comment: 21 pages, 11 figures. Submitted to MNRAS. Also available in html version at http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/STAFF/S.Higgins/jcmnpaper/jc_mn.htm

    Lithospheric failure on Venus

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    We develop a predictive model which has the ability to explain a postulated style of episodic plate tectonics on Venus, through the periodic occurrence of lithospheric subduction events. Present-day incipient subduction zones are associated with the existence of arcuate trenches on the Venusian lithosphere. These trenches resemble terrestrial subduction zones, and occur at the rim of coronae, uplift features thought to be due to deep-mantle convective plumes. The model we adopt represents the lithosphere as the thermal boundary layer which lies above a convective plume. We assume a temperature-dependent nonlinear viscoelastic rheology, and we assume a stress-based criterion for plastic yield. In developing this latter criterion, we are led to a re-interpretation of the strength envelope which is commonly used in analysing lithospheric stress, and we propose that the plastic yield strength has meaning (and is finite) below the lithosphere, using behaviour in the Earth as our 'laboratory' justification for this view. An inferred yield stress on the Earth is ca. 300 bar (30 MPa). Our model then shows that a thickening lithosphere becomes progressively more fluid as the stresses induced by the buoyant convective plume become large. Failure occurs when the effective lithosphere viscosity becomes equal to that of the underlying mantle. We show that reasonable expected values of yield stress in the range 100-200 bar (10-20 MPa) for Venusian mantle rocks are consistent within the framework of the model with radii of coronal trenches in the range 100-1200 km, and with the approximate time (200-800 Myr) which they may take to develop

    The Eighteenth Century

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    This chapter has three sections: 1. General and Prose; 2. The Novel; 3. Poetry. Section 1 is by Eliza O’Brien; section 2 is by Elles Smallegoor and Sandro Jung; section 3 is by David E. Shuttleton
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