17,829 research outputs found

    Multifrequency nature of the 0.75 mHz feature in the X-ray light curves of the nova V4743 Sgr

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    We present timing analyses of eight X-ray light curves and one optical/UV light curve of the nova V4743 Sgr (2002) taken by CHANDRA and XMM on days after outburst: 50 (early hard emission phase), 180, 196, 302, 371, 526 (super soft source, SSS, phase), and 742 and 1286 (quiescent emission phase). We have studied the multifrequency nature and time evolution of the dominant peak at ~0.75 mHz using the standard Lomb-Scargle method and a 2-D sine fitting method. We found a double structure of the peak and its overtone for days 180 and 196. The two frequencies were closer together on day 196, suggesting that the difference between the two peaks is gradually decreasing. For the later observations, only a single frequency can be detected, which is likely due to the exposure times being shorter than the beat period between the two peaks, especially if they are moving closer together. The observations on days 742 and 1286 are long enough to detect two frequencies with the difference found for day 196, but we confidently find only a single frequency. We found significant changes in the oscillation frequency and amplitude. We have derived blackbody temperatures from the SSS spectra, and the evolution of changes in frequency and blackbody temperature suggests that the 0.75-mHz peak was modulated by pulsations. Later, after nuclear burning had ceased, the signal stabilised at a single frequency, although the X-ray frequency differs from the optical/UV frequency obtained consistently from the OM onboard XMM and from ground-based observations. We believe that the late frequency is the white dwarf rotation and that the ratio of spin/orbit period strongly supports that the system is an intermediate polar.Comment: 17 pages, 22 figures, 7 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Expanding atmosphere models for SSS spectra of novae

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    Super Soft Source (SSS) spectra are powered by nuclear burning on the surface of a white dwarf. The released energy causes a radiatively-driven wind that leads to a radially extended atmosphere around the white dwarf. Significant blue shifts in photospheric absorption lines are found in the spectra of novae during their SSS phase, being an evidence of continued mass loss in this phase. We present spherically symmetric PHOENIX models that account for the expansion of the ejecta. A comparison to a plane parallel, hydrostatic atmosphere model demonstrates that the mass loss can have a significant impact on the model spectra. The dynamic model yields less pronounced absorption edges, and harder X-ray spectra are the result. Therefore, lower effective temperatures are needed to explain the observed spectra. Although both types of models are yet to be fine-tuned in order to accurately determine best fit parameters, the implications on the chemical abundances are going in opposite directions. With the expanding models the requirement for strong depletion of the crucial elements that cause these edges is now avoidable.Comment: 4 pages, accepted for A

    Nonequilibrium density matrix for simultaneous heat and charge steady-state transport in quantum open systems

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    We suggest a generalisation of the expression of the nonequilibrium density matrix obtained by Hershfield's method for the cases where both heat and charge steady state currents are present in a quantum open system. The finite-size quantum system, connected to two temperature and particle reservoirs, is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of both a temperature gradient and a chemical potential gradient between the two reservoirs. We show that the NE density matrix is given by a generalised Gibbs-like ensemble, and is in full agreement with the general results of the McLennan-Zubarev nonequilibrium ensembles. The extra non-equilibrium terms are related to the entropy production in the system and characterise the fluxes of heat and particle.An explicit example, for the lowest order expansion, is provide for a model system of non-interacting fermions.Comment: accepted (Dec 2014) for publication in PR

    The Anonymous Poster: How to Protect Internet Users’ Privacy and Prevent Abuse

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    The threat of anonymous Internet posting to individual privacy has been met with congressional and judicial indecisiveness. Part of the problem stems from the inherent conflict between punishing those who disrespect one\u27s privacy by placing a burden on the individual websites and continuing to support the Internet\u27s development. Additionally, assigning traditional tort liability is problematic as the defendant enjoys an expectation of privacy as well, creating difficulty in securing the necessary information to proceed with legal action. One solution to resolving invasion of privacy disputes involves a uniform identification verification program that ensures user confidentiality while promoting accountability for malicious behavior

    Development of a Methodology for Modelling Consumers’ Low Input Food Purchases

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    This paper explains the development of a methodology to model consumers’ purchases of low input and organic foods. The focus of the research design is the need to create value and satisfaction that exceeds consumers’ expectations and induces loyalty. The adopted analytical framework adopts a structural equation model (SEM) in the context of consumer loyalty research to explore the determinants of consumer loyalty in terms of constructs of perceived quality, perceived risk, sacrifice, perceived value and satisfaction. A General Model is proposed that permits the specification of nested models and hence, tests for the suitability of preferred models. The primary research instrument is a questionnaire applied to four products in five countries. The questionnaire collects data to inform the SEM and in addition, includes measures of attitudes to foods in general, and attitudes to, and beliefs about organic food

    Observational Evidence for Expansion in the SSS spectra of Novae

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    For several novae, a bright X-ray source with a spectrum resembling the class of Super Soft X-ray Sources (SSS) has been observed a few weeks to months after outburst. Novae are powered by explosive nuclear burning on the surface of a white dwarf, and enough energy is produced to power a radiatively driven wind. Owing to the evolution of the opacity of the ejecta, the observable spectrum gradually shifts from optical to soft X-rays (SSS phase). It has sometimes been assumed that at the beginning of the SSS phase no more mass loss occurs. However, high-resolution X-ray spectra of some novae have shown highly blue-shifted absorption lines, indicating a significant expansion. In this paper, I show that all novae that have been observed with X-ray gratings during their SSS phase show significant blue shifts. I argue that all models that attempt to explain the X-ray bright SSS phase have to accommodate the continued expansion of the ejecta.Comment: 4 pages, accepted for Astronomische Nachrichte

    Early Super Soft Source spectra in RS Oph

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    Recent Swift X-ray monitoring campaigns of novae have revealed extreme levels of variability during the early super-soft-source (SSS) phase. The first time this was observed was during the 2006 outburst of the recurrent nova RS Oph which was also extensively covered by grating observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra. I focus here on an XMM-Newton observation taken on day 26.1, just before Swift confirmed the start of the SSS phase, and a Chandra observation taken on day 39.7. The first observation probes the evolution of the shock emission produced by the collision of the nova ejecta with the stellar wind of the companion. The second observation contains bright SSS emission longwards of 15A while at short wavelengths, the shock component can be seen to have hardly changed. On top of the SSS continuum, additional emission lines are clearly seen, and I show that they are much stronger than those seen on day 26.1, indicating line pumping caused by the SSS emission. The lightcurve on day 39.7 is highly variable on short time scales while the long-term Swift light curve was still variable. In 2007, we have shown that brightness variations are followed by hardness variations, lagging behind 1000 seconds. I show now that the hardness variations are owed to variations in the depth of the neutral hydrogen column density of order 25%, particularly affecting the oxygen K-shell ionization edge at 0.5 keV.Comment: Accepted for Acta Polytechnica. 4 pages, 4 figures, conference proceedings PALERMO WORKSHOP 201
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