6,416 research outputs found

    Search for one large extra dimension with the DELPHI detector at LEP2

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    Single photons detected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP2 in the years 1997-2000 are used to investigate the existence of a single extra dimension in a modifed ADD scenario with slightly warped large extra dimensions. The data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 180 and 209 GeV for an integrated luminosity of ~650 pb^-1 agree with the predictions of the Standard Model and allow a limit to be set on graviton emission in one large extra dimension. The limit obtained on the fundamental mass scale MD is 1.69 TeV at 95% CL, with an expected limit of 1.71 TeV.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, contributed to Lepton Photon 2007, Daegu, Kore

    A Geant4 simulation code for simulating optical photons in SPECT scintillation detectors

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    Geant4 is an object oriented toolkit created for the simulation of High-Energy Physics detectors. Geant4 allows an accurate modeling of radiation sources and detector devices, with easy configuration and friendly interface and at the same time with great accuracy in the simulation of physical processes. While most Monte Carlo codes do not allow the simulation of the transport and boundary characteristics for optical photons transport generated by scintillating crystal, Geant4 allows the simulation of the optical photons. In this paper we present an application of the Geant4 program for simulating optical photons in SPECT cameras. We aim to study the light transport within scintillators, photomultiplier tubes and coupling devices. To this end, we simulated a detector based on a scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube through a glass window. We compared simulated results with experimental data and theoretical models, in order to verify the good matching with our simulations. We simulated a pencil beam of 140 keV photons impinging the crystal at different locations. For each condition, we calculated the value of the Pulse Height Centroid and the spread of the charge distribution, as read out by the anode array of the photomultiplier. Finally, the spatial and the energy resolutions of the camera have been estimated by simulated data. In all cases, we found that simulations agree very well with experimental data

    Redistribution of DAT/α-synuclein complexes visualized by “in situ” proximity ligation assay in transgenic mice modelling early Parkinson’s disease

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    Alpha-synuclein, the major component of Lewy bodies, is thought to play a central role in the onset of synaptic dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, α-synuclein may affect dopaminergic neuron function as it interacts with a key protein modulating dopamine (DA) content at the synapse: the DA transporter (DAT). Indeed, recent evidence from our "in vitro" studies showed that α-synuclein aggregation decreases the expression and membrane trafficking of the DAT as the DAT is retained into α-synuclein-immunopositive inclusions. This notwithstanding, "in vivo" studies on PD animal models investigating whether DAT distribution is altered by the pathological overexpression and aggregation of α-synuclein are missing. By using the proximity ligation assay, a technique which allows the "in situ" visualization of protein-protein interactions, we studied the occurrence of alterations in the distribution of DAT/α-synuclein complexes in the SYN120 transgenic mouse model, showing insoluble α-synuclein aggregates into dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal system, reduced striatal DA levels and an altered distribution of synaptic proteins in the striatum. We found that DAT/α-synuclein complexes were markedly redistributed in the striatum and substantia nigra of SYN120 mice. These alterations were accompanied by a significant increase of DAT striatal levels in transgenic animals when compared to wild type littermates. Our data indicate that, in the early pathogenesis of PD, α-synuclein acts as a fine modulator of the dopaminergic synapse by regulating the subcellular distribution of key proteins such as the DAT

    Lower grade gliomas: relationships between metabolic and structural imaging with grading and molecular factors

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    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a valuable tool for the characterization of brain tumors in vivo. However, few studies have investigated the correlation between carbon-11-methionine (11C-METH) PET metrics and the clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular features of patients affected by lower grade gliomas (LGGs). The present observational study evaluated the relationships between 11C-METH PET metrics and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings with the histomolecular biomarkers in patients with LGGs who were candidates for surgery. Methods: We enrolled 96 patients with pathologically proven LGG (51 men, 45 women; age 44.1 \ub1 13.7 years; 45 with grade II, 51 with grade III), who had been referred from March 2012 to January 2015 for tumor resection and had undergone preoperative 11C-METH PET. The semiquantitative metrics for 11C-METH PET included maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV ratio to normal brain, and metabolic tumor burden (MTB). The PET semiquantitative metrics were analyzed and compared with the MRI features, histological diagnosis, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 status, and 1p/19q codeletion. Results: Histological grade was associated with SUVmax (P = 0.002), SUV ratio (P = 0.011), and MTB (P = 0.001), with grade III lesions showing higher values. Among the nonenhancing lesions on MRI, SUVmax (P = 0.001), SUV ratio (P = 0.003) and MTB (P < 0.001) were significantly different statistically for grade II versus grade III. The MRI lesion volume correlated poorly with MTB (r 2 = 0.13). The SUVmax and SUV ratio were greater (P < 0.05) in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 wild-type lesions, and the SUV ratio was associated with the presence of the 1p19q codeletion. Conclusions: The 11C-METH PET metrics correlated significantly with histological grade and the molecular profile. Semiquantitative PET metrics can improve the preoperative evaluation of LGGs and thus support clinical decision-making

    Further studies on the physics potential of an experiment using LHC neutrinos

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    We discuss an experiment to investigate neutrino physics at the LHC, with emphasis on tau flavour. As described in our previous paper Beni et al (2019 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 46 115008), the detector can be installed in the decommissioned TI18 tunnel, ≈ 480 m downstream the ATLAS cavern, after the first bending dipoles of the LHC arc. The detector intercepts the intense neutrino flux, generated by the LHC beams colliding in IP1, at large pseudorapidity η, where neutrino energies can exceed a TeV. This paper focuses on exploring the neutrino pseudorapity versus energy phase space available in TI18 in order to optimize the detector location and acceptance for neutrinos originating at the pp interaction point, in contrast to neutrinos from pion and kaon decays. The studies are based on the comparison of simulated pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV: PYTHIA events of heavy quark (c and b) production, compared to DPMJET minimum bias events (including charm) with produced particles traced through realistic LHC optics with FLUKA. Our studies favour a configuration where the detector is positioned off the beam axis, slightly above the ideal prolongation of the LHC beam from the straight section, covering 7.4 &lt; η &lt; 9.2. In this configuration, the flux at high energies (0.5-1.5 TeV and beyond) is found to be dominated by neutrinos originating directly from IP1, mostly from charm decays, of which ∌50% are electron neutrinos and ∌5% are tau neutrinos. The contribution of pion and kaon decays to the muon neutrino flux is found small at those high energies. With 150 f b-1 of delivered LHC luminosity in Run 3 the experiment can record a few thousand very high energy neutrino charged current (CC) interactions and over 50 tau neutrino CC events. These events provide useful information in view of a high statistics experiment at HL-LHC. The electron and muon neutrino samples can extend the knowledge of the charm PDF to a new region of x, which is dominated by theory uncertainties. The tau neutrino sample can provide first experience on reconstruction of tau neutrino events in a very boosted regime