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    Licensing and the Incentive for Innovation

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    Previous literature has mostly considered R&D and licensing activities separately. In this paper we examine the effect of licensing on R&D and social welfare. We show that the effect of licensing on the incentive for doing R&D is ambiguous and depends on the costs of doing R&D. We also show that the possibility of licensing can change the identity of the innovating firm. However, we find that social welfare is non- decreasing in presence of licensing.Licensing, R&D, Welfare

    Event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions in ALICE

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    Fluctuations of various observables in heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies have been extensively studied as they provide important signals regarding the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Because of the large number of produced particles in each event, a detailed study of event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations has been proposed as one of the signatures of the phase transition. In addition, the understanding of multiplicity fluctuations is essential for other event-by-event measurements. In the present work, we have calculated the scaled variance (ωch=σ2/μ\omega_{\rm ch}=\sigma^{\rm 2} / \mu) of the charged-particle multiplicity distributions as a function of centrality in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies. Here, μ\mu and σ\sigma denote the mean and the width of the multiplicity distributions, respectively. The trend of scaled variances as a function of centrality is presented and discussed. Volume fluctuations play an important role while measuring the multiplicity fluctuations, which are also discussed. The results are expected to provide vital input to theoretical model calculations.Comment: Proceedings of "XI Workshop on Particle Correlations and Femtoscopy", 3-7 November 2015. 5 pages, 2 figure

    Wigner Distributions Using Light-Front Wave Functions

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    We report on some recent advances in calculating the Wigner distributions for quarks and gluons, using overlaps of light-front wave functions.Comment: Talk given at the QCD Evolution Workshop, May 22-26, 2017, Jefferson Lab, US
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