2,562 research outputs found

    A Modified Gravity and its Consequences for the Solar System, Astrophysics and Cosmology

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    A relativistic modified gravity (MOG) theory leads to a self-consistent, stable gravity theory that can describe the solar system, galaxy and clusters of galaxies data and cosmology.Comment: 16 pages. Latex file. Talk given at the International Workshop "From Quantum to Cosmos: Fundamental Physics in Space", 22-24 May, 2006, Warrenton, Virginia, USA. To be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys D. Equation correcte

    Superluminal Gravitational Waves

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    The quantum gravity effects of vacuum polarization of gravitons propagating in a curved spacetime cause the quantum vacuum to act as a dispersive medium with a refractive index. Due to this dispersive medium gravitons acquire superluminal velocities. The dispersive medium is produced by higher derivative curvature contributions to the effective gravitational action. It is shown that in a Friedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the early universe near the Planck time tPL1043sect_{\rm PL}\gtrsim 10^{-43}\,{\rm sec}, the speed of gravitational waves cgcg0=c0c_g\gg c_{g0}=c_0, where cg0c_{g0} and c0c_0 are the speeds of gravitational waves and light today. The large speed of gravitational waves stretches their wavelengths to super-horizon sizes, allowing them to be observed in B-polarization experiments.Comment: 5 pages, no figure

    Structure Growth and the CMB in Modified Gravity (MOG)

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    An important piece of evidence for dark matter is the need to explain the growth of structure from the time of horizon entry and radiation-matter equality to the formation of stars and galaxies. This cannot be explained by using general relativity without dark matter. So far, dark matter particles have not been detected in laboratory measurements or at the LHC. We demonstrate that enhanced structure growth can happen in a modified gravity theory (MOG). The vector field and particle introduced in the theory to explain galaxy and cluster dynamics plays an important role in generating the required structure growth. The particle called the phion (a light hidden photon) is neutral and is a dominant, pressureless component in the MOG Friedmann equations, before the time of decoupling. The dominant energy density of the phion particle in the early universe, generates an explanation for the growth of density perturbations. The angular acoustical power spectrum due to baryon-photon pressure waves is in agreement with the Planck 2013 data. As the universe expands and large scale structures are formed, the density of baryons dominates and the rotation curves of galaxies and the dynamics of clusters are explained in MOG, when the phion particle in the present universe is ultra-light. The matter power spectrum determined by the theory is in agreement with current galaxy redshift surveys.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Superluminary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Initial Value Problem in Cosmology

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    The spontaneous breaking of local Lorentz invariance in the early Universe, associated with a first order phase transition at a critical time tct_c, generates a large increase in the speed of light and a superluminary communication of information occurs, allowing all regions in the Universe to be causally connected. This solves the horizon problem, leads to a mechanism of monopole suppression in cosmology and can resolve the flatness problem. After the critical time tct_c, local Lorentz (and diffeomorphism) invariance is restored and light travels at its presently measured speed. The kinematical and dynamical aspects of the generation of quantum fluctuations in the superluminary Universe are investigated. A scale invariant prediction for the fluctuation density amplitude is obtained.Comment: Updated version (with the exception of two figures not included) of paper published in: International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 2, No. 3 (1993) 351-36