317 research outputs found

    Synthesis and evaluation of human phosphodiesterases (PDE) 5 inhibitor analogs as trypanosomal PDE inhibitors. 2. Tadalafil analogs

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    Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2012. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 22 (2012): 2582-2584, doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.01.118.In this report we describe our ongoing target repurposing efforts focused on discovery of inhibitors of the essential trypanosomal phosphodiesterase TbrPDEB1. This enzyme has been implicated in virulence of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). We outline the synthesis and biological evaluation of analogs of tadalafil, a human PDE5 inhibitor currently utilized for treatment of erectile dysfunction, and report that these analogs are weak inhibitors of TbrPDEB1.This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R01AI082577), Boston University and Northeastern University

    A prompt neutrino measurement

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    A test has been made to explore the possibility of beam dump neutrino experiments with short target‐detector separations and modest detectors. Results have given a positive neutrino signal which is interpreted in the context of various charmed‐meson production models. A limit to the lifetime and mass of the axion is also a byproduct of this test.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87326/2/246_1.pd

    Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth

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    Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infrared, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems. We determined optimal plant growth light requirements via a literature search and researcher input. We surveyed candidate lamp fill materials to be used in combination with sulfur and explored several methods of increasing photosynthetic efficacy

    The CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg Monocyte: An Immunosuppressive Phenotype That Restrains Responses to Cancer Immunotherapy

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    Recent successes in cancer immunotherapy have been tempered by sub-optimal clinical responses in the majority of patients. The impaired anti-tumor immune responses observed in these patients are likely a consequence of immune system dysfunction contributed to by a variety of factors that include, but are not limited to, diminished antigen presentation/detection, leukopenia, a coordinated network of immunosuppressive cell surface proteins, cytokines and cellular mediators. Monocytes that have diminished or no HLA-DR expression, called CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes, have emerged as important mediators of tumor-induced immunosuppression. These cells have been grouped into a larger class of suppressive cells called myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and are commonly referred to as monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells. CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes were first characterized in patients with sepsis and were shown to regulate the transition from the inflammatory state to immune suppression, ultimately leading to immune paralysis. These immunosuppressive monocytes have also recently been shown to negatively affect responses to PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition, CAR-T cell therapy, cancer vaccines, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ultimately, the goal is to understand the role of these cells in the context of immunosuppression not only to facilitate the development of targeted therapies to circumvent their effects, but also to potentially use them as a biomarker for understanding disparate responses to immunotherapeutic regimens. Practical aspects to be explored for development of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocyte detection in patients are the standardization of flow cytometric gating methods to assess HLA-DR expression, an appropriate quantitation method, test sample type, and processing guidances. Once detection methods are established that yield consistently reproducible results, then further progress can be made toward understanding the role of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes in the immunosuppressive state

    Circulating immunophenotypes are potentially prognostic in follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer

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    BackgroundExploring the immune interface of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer has prognostic and therapeutic potential. The available literature is lacking for comprehensive immunophenotyping in relation to clinical outcomes. In this study, we identify circulating immunophenotypes associated with thyroid cancer prognosis.MethodsWe conducted a pilot observational study of adults with follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer who underwent surgery at our tertiary care referral center and had consented for flow cytometry on peripheral blood collected at the time of thyroidectomy.ResultsOf the 32 included subjects, 20 (62%) had well differentiated, 5 (16%) had poorly differentiated, and 7 (22%) had anaplastic thyroid cancer. The most frequent AJCC stage was 4 (59%) and the ATA risk of recurrence category was high (56%). Patients with AJCC stage 3/4 demonstrated fewer circulating mononuclear cells (CD45+), more monocytes (CD14+), fewer total lymphocytes (CD14-), fewer T cells (CD3+), fewer CD4+ T cells, fewer gamma-delta T cells, fewer natural killer (NK) T-like cells, more myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs; Lin-CD33+HLADR-), and more effector memory T cells but similar CD8+ T cells compared to stage1/2. Immunophenotype comparisons by ATA risk stratification and course of thyroid cancer were comparable to those observed for stage, except for significant differences in memory T cell subtypes. The median follow-up was 58 months.ConclusionsAggressive follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer either at presentation or during follow-up is associated with down-regulation of the T cell populations specifically CD4+ T cells, gamma-delta T cells, and NK T-like cells but up-regulation of MDSCs and altered memory T cells. These immunophenotypes are potential prognostic biomarkers supporting future investigation for developing targeted immunotherapies against advanced thyroid cancer

    Neutron total cross sections on nuclei at Fermilab energies

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    We have measured total cross sections for neutrons on protons, deuteriom, beryllium, carbon, aluminium, iron, copper, cadmium, tungsten, lead, and uranium for momenta between 30 and 300 GeV/c. The measurements were carried out in a small-angle neutral beam at Fermilab. Typical accuracy of the data is 0.5 to 1%. The cross sections are consistent with an A0.77+/-0.01 dependence over the entire momentum range. The cross sections are compared with theoretical predictions. Agreement is found only if inelastic screening is included. Nuclear radii obtained from our data are in good agreement with previous determinations.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/22036/1/0000454.pd

    Predictive significance of the six-minute walk distance for long-term survival in chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure

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    Background: The 6-min walk distance ( 6-MWD) is a global marker of functional capacity and prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD), but less explored in other chronic respiratory diseases. Objective: To study the role of 6-MWD in chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure ( CHRF). Methods: In 424 stable patients with CHRF and non-invasive ventilation ( NIV) comprising COPD ( n = 197), restrictive diseases ( RD; n = 112) and obesity-hypoventilation- syndrome ( OHS; n = 115), the prognostic value of 6-MWD for long- term survival was assessed in relation to that of body mass index (BMI), lung function, respiratory muscle function and laboratory parameters. Results: 6-MWD was reduced in patients with COPD ( median 280 m; quartiles 204/350 m) and RD ( 290 m; 204/362 m) compared to OHS ( 360 m; 275/440 m; p <0.001 each). Overall mortality during 24.9 (13.1/40.5) months was 22.9%. In the 424 patients with CHRF, 6-MWD independently predicted mortality in addition to BMI, leukocytes and forced expiratory volume in 1 s ( p <0.05 each). In COPD, 6-MWD was strongly associated with mortality using the median {[} p <0.001, hazard ratio ( HR) = 3.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.24-6.38] or quartiles as cutoff levels. In contrast, 6-MWD was only significantly associated with impaired survival in RD patients when it was reduced to 204 m or less (1st quartile; p = 0.003, HR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.73-14.10), while in OHS 6-MWD had not any prognostic value. Conclusions: In patients with CHRF and NIV, 6-MWD was predictive for long- term survival particularly in COPD. In RD only severely reduced 6-MWD predicted mortality, while in OHS 6-MWD was relatively high and had no prognostic value. These results support a disease-specific use of 6-MWD in the routine assessment of patients with CHRF. Copyright (C) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Reverberation Mapping of the Kepler-Field AGN KA1858+4850

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    KA1858+4850 is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy at redshift 0.078 and is among the brightest active galaxies monitored by the Kepler mission. We have carried out a reverberation mapping campaign designed to measure the broad-line region size and estimate the mass of the black hole in this galaxy. We obtained 74 epochs of spectroscopic data using the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3-m telescope from February to November of 2012, and obtained complementary V-band images from five other ground-based telescopes. We measured the H-beta light curve lag with respect to the V-band continuum light curve using both cross-correlation techniques (CCF) and continuum light curve variability modeling with the JAVELIN method, and found rest-frame lags of lag_CCF = 13.53 (+2.03, -2.32) days and lag_JAVELIN = 13.15 (+1.08, -1.00) days. The H-beta root-mean-square line profile has a width of sigma_line = 770 +/- 49 km/s. Combining these two results and assuming a virial scale factor of f = 5.13, we obtained a virial estimate of M_BH = 8.06 (+1.59, -1.72) x 10^6 M_sun for the mass of the central black hole and an Eddington ratio of L/L_Edd ~ 0.2. We also obtained consistent but slightly shorter emission-line lags with respect to the Kepler light curve. Thanks to the Kepler mission, the light curve of KA1858+4850 has among the highest cadences and signal-to-noise ratios ever measured for an active galactic nucleus; thus, our black hole mass measurement will serve as a reference point for relations between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics in active galactic nuclei

    Dimuon production by protons in Tungsten

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    The mass spectrum of dimuons produced by 400 GeV/c protons in Tungsten has been measured for masses greater than 7 GeV. A clear resonant signal of 2700 upsilons has been seen. The dependence of dimuon production on xF and pT has been determined for dimuon masses in the range 7.0 to 8.25 GeV as well as for masses in the upsilon region 8.25 to 9.75 GeV.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87470/2/93_1.pd
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