871 research outputs found

### Measuring the dispersive frequency shift of a rectangular microwave cavity induced by an ensemble of Rydberg atoms

In recent years the interest in studying interactions of Rydberg atoms or
ensembles thereof with optical and microwave frequency fields has steadily
increased, both in the context of basic research and for potential applications
in quantum information processing. We present measurements of the dispersive
interaction between an ensemble of helium atoms in the 37s Rydberg state and a
single resonator mode by extracting the amplitude and phase change of a weak
microwave probe tone transmitted through the cavity. The results are in
quantitative agreement with predictions made on the basis of the dispersive
Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian. We study this system with the goal of realizing a
hybrid between superconducting circuits and Rydberg atoms. We measure maximal
collective coupling strengths of 1 MHz, corresponding to 3*10^3 Rydberg atoms
coupled to the cavity. As expected, the dispersive shift is found to be
inversely proportional to the atom-cavity detuning and proportional to the
number of Rydberg atoms. This possibility of measuring the number of Rydberg
atoms in a nondestructive manner is relevant for quantitatively evaluating
scattering cross sections in experiments with Rydberg atoms

### Collective shuttling of attracting particles in asymmetric narrow channels

The rectification of a single file of attracting particles subjected to a low
frequency ac drive is proposed as a working mechanism for particle shuttling in
an asymmetric narrow channel. Increasing the particle attraction results in the
file condensing, as signalled by the dramatic enhancement of the net particle
current. Magnitude and direction of the current become extremely sensitive to
the actual size of the condensate, which can then be made to shuttle between
two docking stations, transporting particles in one direction, with an
efficiency much larger than conventional diffusive models predict

### Localization in non-chiral network models for two-dimensional disordered wave mechanical systems

Scattering theoretical network models for general coherent wave mechanical
systems with quenched disorder are investigated. We focus on universality
classes for two dimensional systems with no preferred orientation: Systems of
spinless waves undergoing scattering events with broken or unbroken time
reversal symmetry and systems of spin 1/2 waves with time reversal symmetric
scattering. The phase diagram in the parameter space of scattering strengths is
determined. The model breaking time reversal symmetry contains the critical
point of quantum Hall systems but, like the model with unbroken time reversal
symmetry, only one attractive fixed point, namely that of strong localization.
Multifractal exponents and quasi-one-dimensional localization lengths are
calculated numerically and found to be related by conformal invariance.
Furthermore, they agree quantitatively with theoretical predictions. For
non-vanishing spin scattering strength the spin 1/2 systems show
localization-delocalization transitions.Comment: 4 pages, REVTeX, 4 figures (postscript

### Dissociation energy of the hydrogen molecule at 10$^{-9}$ accuracy

The ionization energy of ortho-H$_2$ has been determined to be
$E^\mathrm{o}_\mathrm{I}(\mathrm{H}_2)/(hc)=124\,357.238\,062(25)$ cm$^{-1}$
from measurements of the GK(1,1)--X(0,1) interval by Doppler-free two-photon
spectroscopy using a narrow band 179-nm laser source and the ionization energy
of the GK(1,1) state by continuous-wave near-infrared laser spectroscopy.
$E^\mathrm{o}_\mathrm{I}$(H$_2$) was used to derive the dissociation energy of
H$_2$, $D^{N=1}_{0}$(H$_2$), at $35\,999.582\,894(25)$ cm$^{-1}$ with a
precision that is more than one order of magnitude better than all previous
results. The new result challenges calculations of this quantity and represents
a benchmark value for future relativistic and QED calculations of molecular
energies.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

### The two electron artificial molecule

Exact results for the classical and quantum system of two vertically coupled
two-dimensional single electron quantum dots are obtained as a function of the
interatomic distance (d) and with perpendicular magnetic field. The classical
system exhibits a second order structural transition as a function of d which
is smeared out and shifted to lower d values in the quantum case. The
spin-singlet - spin-triplet oscillations are shifted to larger magnetic fields
with increasing d and are quenched for a sufficiently large interatomic
distance.Comment: 4 pages, 4 ps figure

### Screening and inplane magnetoresistance of anisotropic two-dimensional gas

In order to split the influence of the orbital and spin effects on the
inplane magnetoresistance of a quasi two-dimensional gas we derive its linear
response function and dielectric function for the case of anisotropic effective
mass. This result is used for the calculation of elastic transport relaxation
time of a quasi two dimensional system in a parallel magnetic field. The
relaxation time is proved to be isotropic in the low density limit for the case
of charged impurity scattering, allowing to separate the two contributions.Comment: as published. 4 pages, 1 figur

### Coherent current transport in wide ballistic Josephson junctions

We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of coherent current
transport in wide ballistic superconductor-two dimensional electron
gas-superconductor junctions. It is found experimentally that upon increasing
the junction length, the subharmonic gap structure in the current-voltage
characteristics is shifted to lower voltages, and the excess current at
voltages much larger than the superconducting gap decreases. Applying a theory
of coherent multiple Andreev reflection, we show that these observations can be
explained in terms of transport through Andreev resonances.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

### Two Electrons in a Quantum Dot: A Unified Approach

Low-lying energy levels of two interacting electrons confined in a
two-dimensional parabolic quantum dot in the presence of an external magnetic
field have been revised within the frame of a novel model. The present
formalism, which gives closed algebraic solutions for the specific values of
magnetic field and spatial confinement length, enables us to see explicitly
individual effects of the electron correlation.Comment: 14 page

### Coulomb correlation effects in semiconductor quantum dots: The role of dimensionality

We study the energy spectra of small three-dimensional (3D) and
two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor quantum dots through different theoretical
approaches (single-site Hubbard and Hartree-Fock hamiltonians); in the smallest
dots we also compare with exact results. We find that purely 2D models often
lead to an inadequate description of the Coulomb interaction existing in
realistic structures, as a consequence of the overestimated carrier
localization. We show that the dimensionality of the dots has a crucial impact
on (i) the accuracy of the predicted addition spectra; (ii) the range of
validity of approximate theoretical schemes. When applied to realistic 3D
geometries, the latter are found to be much more accurate than in the
corresponding 2D cases for a large class of quantum dots; the single-site
Hubbard hamiltonian is shown to provide a very effective and accurate scheme to
describe quantum dot spectra, leading to good agreement with experiments.Comment: LaTeX 2.09, RevTeX, 25 pages, 9 Encapsulated Postscript figures. To
be published in Physical Review

### Addition Spectra of Quantum Dots in Strong Magnetic Fields

We consider the magnetic field dependence of the chemical potential for
parabolically confined quantum dots in a strong magnetic field. Approximate
expressions based on the notion that the size of a dot is determined by a
competition between confinement and interaction energies are shown to be
consistent with exact diagonalization studies for small quantum dots. Fine
structure is present in the magnetic field dependence which cannot be explained
without a full many-body description and is associated with ground-state level
crossings as a function of confinement strength or Zeeman interaction strength.
Some of this fine structure is associated with precursors of the bulk
incompressible states responsible for the fractional quantum Hall effect.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures (available from [email protected]). Revtex
3.0. (IUCM93-010

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