621 research outputs found

    Els fluxos d'alumnat a l'ensenyament secundari : inèrcies i canvis malgrat les reformes educatives

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    El present article és una anàlisi dels fluxos educatius o la circulació de l'alumnat per l'ensenyament secundari des d'una perspectiva històrica. És a dir, s'han calculat aquests fluxos per a l'última etapa de la Llei general d'educació i per als primers anys d'aplicació de la LOGSE, a partir de les dades del Departament d'Ensenyament. Amb la comparació dels diagrames de fluxos que resulten de l'anàlisi estadística, es poden veure algunes discontinuïtats però també algunes tendències de fons que presenten una forta inèrcia, com ara la distribució entre ensenyament acadèmic i professional, la selecció interna del batxillerat o l'accés a la universitat. Per últim, es reflexiona sobre les possibilitats de l'última reforma plantejada, la LOCE, de modificar aquests fluxos.El presente artículo es un análisis de los flujos educativos o la circulación del alumnado por la enseñanza secundaria desde una perspectiva histórica. Éstos se han calculado en el periodo que va de la última etapa de la Ley general de educación hasta los primeros años de implantación de la LOGSE, todo ello a partir de los datos del Departament d'Ensenyament de la Generalitat de Catalunya. A través de la comparación de los diagramas de flujo, que resultan del análisis estadístico, se pueden apreciar algunas discontinuidades pero también algunas tendencias de fondo que presentan una fuerte inercia, como la distribución entre enseñanza académica y profesional, la selección interna del bachillerato o el acceso a la universidad. Por último, se reflexiona sobre las posibilidades que tiene la última reforma planteada, la LOCE, para modificar estos flujos.This article makes a flow analysis of student's circulation in secondary school, in an historical point of view. We are calculated the students flow during the last period of LGE (General Education Act) and during the first step of LOGSE (Educational System Act). The data are from Education Department (autonomous govern). We can compare the results of statistical analysis, the flows diagrams, and we can see some changes but also some strong permanent trends, for example in choices between academic or vocational studies, the selection inside the academic track or the access to higher education. Finally, we discuss about the possibilities of the last reform, LOCE, to modify these flows

    L'ensenyament secundari comprensiu. Contradiccions i possibilitats de les reformes educatives

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    Aquest article pretén analitzar els elements principals que configuren l'evolució dels sistemes educatius dels països desenvolupats, fent un èmfasi especial en l'ensenyament secundari. S'hi fa un repàs al paper de les reformes educatives en aquesta evolució, especialment de les anomenades «reformes comprensives», les que tenen com a objectiu unificar el currículum i integrar la formació acadèmica i la formació professional. S'hi analitzen les virtuts d'aquestes reformes, però també les contradiccions que hi ha en la seva definició i en la seva aplicació. Finalment, s'hi apunten algunes reflexions sobre els èxits i els fracassos de les reformes comprensives a l'Estat espanyol.The aim of this article is to analyse the principal features of educational systems evolution in developed countries, emphasising the secondary schooling. There is an overview of educational reforms, specially the reforms called comprehensives», that they want to unify the curricula and integrate academic and vocational education. We analyse the strength and weakness in the definition and their implementation. Finally, we add some reflections about successes and failures of comprehensive reforms in Spain

    Més enllà de les teories de la reproducció i de l'acció racional en sociologia de l'educació : Un model d'explicació de l'ensenyament secundari segregat o integrat

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    Les teories de la reproducció han estat dominants en la sociologia de l'educació des de la dècada dels anys seixanta, en les seves diferents vessants, més estructuralistes o més culturalistes. En contraposició a aquestes teories, s'ha introduït des de l'economia de l'educació l'acció calculadora de l'individu, o des de sociòlegs, com ara Boudon, la teoria de l'acció racional per explicar la construcció dels sistemes educatius a partir de l'elecció dels individus. En aquest article pretenem explorar les possibilitats i les limitacions d'aquestes dues perspectives a l'hora d'analitzar la segregació de l'ensenyament secundari entre la via acadèmica i la via professional, per avançar en una proposta que intenti sintetitzar les claus teòriques per entendre l'origen i el desenvolupament d'aquestes dues vies.Las teorías de la reproducción han sido dominantes en la sociología de la educación desde la década de los años sesenta, en sus diferentes corrientes, más estructuralistas o más culturalistas. En contraposición a estas teorías, se introdujo desde la economía de la educación la acción calculadora del individuo, o desde sociólogos, como por ejemplo Boudon, la teoría de la acción racional para explicar la construcción de los sistemas educativos a partir de la elección de los individuos. En este artículo se pretende explorar las posibilidades y las limitaciones de estas dos perspectivas a la hora de analizar la segregación de la enseñanza secundaria entre la vía académica y la vía profesional, para avanzar en una propuesta de síntesis de las claves teóricas para entender el origen y el desarrollo de estas dos vías.Reproduction theories have been dominants in sociology of education since 60's, in structuralism or culturalism side. Against these theories, economy of education introduced the concept of calculating individual and the sociologist Boudon introduced the theory of rational action to explain the role of individual choice in the construction of educational systems. The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities and weakness of both points of view analysing the segregation of secondary school in two tracks, academic and vocational. We try to synthesise a theoretic approach to understand the origin and development of these two tracks

    Two or three vocational training pathways? An assessment and the current situation in Spain

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    This article outlines the development of vocational training in Spain through the provisions of the major education Laws of 1970, 1990 and 2002. It discusses the extent to which vocational training has been introduced into the education system, i.e. has been converted into regulated vocational training, and how many pathways have been developed. The pathways are the result of the combination of tracks designed by education systems and social initiatives by individuals and social actors. In spite of the education reforms, the types of vocational training pathway retain a certain continuity

    Effects of a strength and stretching program, combined or Iisolated, on active flexibility in physical education setting.

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    Purpose. To examine the effects of a two-session-per-week strength and stretching program on sit and reach score among high-school students in the physical education setting. Methods. A sample of 46 high-school students (16 girls and 30 boys) aged 12-14 years from four classes were clustered and randomly assigned to a strength group (n=8), a stretching group (n=12), a strength + stretching group (n=16) or a control group (n=10). During physical education classes, the experimental students performed a 1-minute stretching, a 1-minute strength or a 2-minutes strength + stretching program twice a week a total of 20 weeks. Control students performed the same physical education classes, but they did not follow any strength and/or stretching program. Active flexibility (estimated by the classic sit-and-reach test) was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the intervention program. Results. The Wilcoxon test results showed that students that performed a combined strength and stretching program increased statistically significantly their active flexibility levels from pre-intervention to post-intervention (∆ = 1.8 ± 3.2 cm; p 0.05). Conclusiones. Since in physical education many curricular contents need to be developed each academic year and the subject is also restricted by its limited curriculum time allocation, teachers could improve students’ flexibility combining stretching and strength workout. Therefore, in addition to the improvement of students’ flexibility levels, this intervention program might permit regular development of other physical education curricular contents.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

    Differences according to modalities, distances and genders of how the triathletes carry their bicycles for the boxes during the first transition in the Spanish Championships

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    Introduction The purpose was to compare the proportion in the use (by elite or pro category) of the 4 types of hold-riding the bicycle during the transition between triathletes’ sex (men and women), distance or modality (Olympic, sprint, long and cross) at the Triathlon Spanish Championships. Method The sample was composed by 648 Spanish triathletes, participants of eight elite Spanish championship triathlon during 2016. Results Most of triathletes hold-ride the bike by the seat only while driving it (76.2%), followed by the handlebar (14.9%), seat-handlebar (7.1%) and stem styles (1.9%). The same tendency was showed within sex, category and race subcategories, except for Olympic (seat style was used for the 95% of triathletes), sprint (seat and handlebar styles were similar), and long (seat-handlebar and stem styles were equal). The results showed that there were statistically significantly differences in the proportion of triathletes that used each hold-riding of the bicycle between sex, race, and sex-race subcategories (p 0.05; Cramer´s V = 0.000-0.244). Discussion The difference between men and women is that men have twice the grip on the handlebars. The videos show that this may be because the groups of men in the boxes are greater than those of the women, and this sometimes forces them, to take the bike by the handlebar to control it better and avoid incidents. While in the Olympic, sprint and long-distance elite triathletes mostly used the seat style, and in the cross race the handlebar style.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tec

    Comparison of the effect of a Physical Education-Based Stretching Program applied during the Warm-Up, ColdDown and both periods on hamstring extensibility in Primary Schoolchildren.

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    Purpose. To compare the effects of a physical education-based stretching program applied during the warm-up, cold-down and both periods on hamstring extensibility in primary schoolchildren. Methods. A sample of 237 schoolchildren aged 7-12 years old (128 girls and 109 boys) from two primary school centres participated in the present study and met satisfactorily the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A cluster randomized controlled trial design was used. The classes balanced by grade were randomly assigned to the warm-up (n = 57), cold-down (n = 55), both periods (n = 61) or control groups (n = 64). During the physical education sessions, the students from the interventional groups performed a four-minute stretching program twice a week for eight weeks. The intervention program was applied during the warm-up (4 minutes), cold-down (4 minutes) and warm-up (2 minutes)-cold-down (2 minutes) for the warm-up, cold-down and both periods groups, respectively. Hamstring extensibility (estimated by the back-saver sit-and-reach test) was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the intervention program. Results. The one-way ANOVA (p 0.05). Conclusions. In order to develop students’ flexibility, PE teachers should apply stretching programs during the cold-down period. Due to the negative effect of static stretching on performance as previously found in the literature, it seems that PE teachers should improve students´ flexibility during the cool-down period of the sessions.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech
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