505 research outputs found

    Acute hypercortisolemia exerts depot-specific effects on abdominal and femoral adipose tissue function

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    Context Glucocorticoids have pleiotropic metabolic functions and acute glucocorticoid excess affects fatty acid metabolism, increasing systemic lipolysis. Whether glucocorticoids exert adipose tissue depot-specific effects remains unclear. Objective In vivo assessment of femoral and abdominal adipose tissue responses to acute glucocorticoid administration. Design and outcome measures Nine healthy male volunteers studied on two occasions, following a hydrocortisone infusion (0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1 for 14 hours) and saline, respectively, given in randomized double-blind order. Subjects were studied in the fasting state and following a 75g glucose drink with in vivo assessment of femoral adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) using radioactive Xenon washout, and lipolysis and glucose uptake using the arterio-venous difference technique. In a separate study (same infusion design), 8 further healthy male subjects underwent assessment of fasting abdominal ATBF and lipolysis only. Lipolysis was assessed as the net release of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) from femoral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results Acute hypercortisolemia significantly increased basal and postprandial ATBF in femoral adipose tissue, but femoral net NEFA release did not change. In abdominal adipose tissue, hypercortisolemia induced significant increases in basal ATBF and NEFA release. Conclusions Acute hypercortisolemia induces differential lipolysis and ATBF responses in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue, suggesting depot-specific glucocorticoid effects. Abdominal, but not femoral, adipose tissue contributes to the hypercortisolemia-induced systemic NEFA increase, with likely contributions from other adipose tissue sources and intravascular triglyceride hydrolysis

    Primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis presenting with hoarseness and dysphagia: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis is an extremely rare condition. It usually presents with hoarseness, pain and/or difficulty in breathing.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis who presented with hoarseness and dysphagia.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>A search of PubMed shows that dysphagia in patients with laryngeal amyloidosis has been reported only once, although this symptom is relatively common in other conditions presenting with laryngeal mass. There were no signs of any systemic disease in our patient and diagnosis was established histopathologically. She was treated surgically by microlaryngoscopy under general anesthesia and the mass was excised using a CO<sub>2</sub> laser technology method.</p

    Evaluating the fat distribution in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning

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    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is strongly associated with obesity. We aimed to utilise dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to characterise fat distribution, and to evaluate change in fat mass and distribution following weight loss. IIH patients (n = 24) had a similar fat distribution to body mass index (BMI)- and gender-matched obese controls (n = 47). In the IIH cohort, truncal fat mass correlated with lumbar puncture pressure. Weight loss in IIH patients resulted in a significant reduction in disease activity and fat mass, predominantly from the truncal region (-4.40 ± 1.6%; p = 0.008) compared with the limbs (+0.79 ± 6.5%; p = 0.71). These results indicate that, contrary to previous studies using waist-hip ratios, IIH adiposity is centripetal, similar to simple obesity. Future studies should establish the risk of the metabolic syndrome and the role of adipose tissue depot-specific function in IIH

    Glucocorticoids modulate human brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in vivo

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    Introduction: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ with substantial metabolic capacity and has important roles in the maintenance of body weight and metabolism. Regulation of BAT is primarily mediated through the ß-adrenoceptor (ß-AR) pathway. The in vivo endocrine regulation of this pathway in humans is unkown. The objective of our study was to assess the in vivo BAT temperature responses to acute glucocorticoid administration. Methods: We studied 8 healthy male volunteers, not pre-selected for BAT presence or activity and without prior BAT cold-activation, on two occasions, following an infusion with hydrocortisone (0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1 for 14 hours) and saline, respectively. Infusions were given in a randomized double-blind order. They underwent assessment of supraclavicular BAT temperature using infrared thermography following a mixed meal, and during ß-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (25 ng.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1 for 60 min) in the fasting state. Results: During hydrocortisone infusion, BAT temperature increased both under fasting basal conditions and during ß-AR stimulation. We observed a BAT temperature threshold, which was not exceeded despite maximal ß-AR activation. We conclude that BAT thermogenesis is present in humans under near-normal conditions. Glucocorticoids modulate BAT function, representing important physiological endocrine regulation of body temperature at times of acute stress

    Co-expression of fibrotic genes in inflammatory bowel disease; A localized event?

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    IntroductionExtracellular matrix turnover, a ubiquitous dynamic biological process, can be diverted to fibrosis. The latter can affect the intestine as a serious complication of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) and is resistant to current pharmacological interventions. It embosses the need for out-of-the-box approaches to identify and target molecular mechanisms of fibrosis.Methods and resultsIn this study, a novel mRNA sequencing dataset of 22 pairs of intestinal biopsies from the terminal ileum (TI) and the sigmoid of 7 patients with Crohn’s disease, 6 with ulcerative colitis and 9 control individuals (CI) served as a validation cohort of a core fibrotic transcriptomic signature (FIBSig), This signature, which was identified in publicly available data (839 samples from patients and healthy individuals) of 5 fibrotic disorders affecting different organs (GI tract, lung, skin, liver, kidney), encompasses 241 genes and the functional pathways which derive from their interactome. These genes were used in further bioinformatics co-expression analyses to elucidate the site-specific molecular background of intestinal fibrosis highlighting their involvement, particularly in the terminal ileum. We also confirmed different transcriptomic profiles of the sigmoid and terminal ileum in our validation cohort. Combining the results of these analyses we highlight 21 core hub genes within a larger single co-expression module, highly enriched in the terminal ileum of CD patients. Further pathway analysis revealed known and novel inflammation-regulated, fibrogenic pathways operating in the TI, such as IL-13 signaling and pyroptosis, respectively.DiscussionThese findings provide a rationale for the increased incidence of fibrosis at the terminal ileum of CD patients and highlight operating pathways in intestinal fibrosis for future evaluation with mechanistic and translational studies

    Lipid Metabolism Links Nutrient-Exercise Timing to Insulin Sensitivity in Men Classified as Overweight or Obese

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    Context Pre-exercise nutrient availability alters acute metabolic responses to exercise, which could modulate training responsiveness. Objective To assess acute and chronic effects of exercise performed before versus after nutrient ingestion on whole-body and intramuscular lipid utilization and postprandial glucose metabolism. Design (1) Acute, randomized, crossover design (Acute Study); (2) 6-week, randomized, controlled design (Training Study). Setting General community. Participants Men with overweight/obesity (mean ± standard deviation, body mass index: 30.2 ± 3.5 kg⋅m-2 for Acute Study, 30.9 ± 4.5 kg⋅m-2 for Training Study). Interventions Moderate-intensity cycling performed before versus after mixed-macronutrient breakfast (Acute Study) or carbohydrate (Training Study) ingestion. Results Acute Study—exercise before versus after breakfast consumption increased net intramuscular lipid utilization in type I (net change: –3.44 ± 2.63% versus 1.44 ± 4.18% area lipid staining, P 0.05). However, postprandial insulinemia was reduced with exercise training performed before but not after carbohydrate ingestion (P = 0.03). This resulted in increased oral glucose insulin sensitivity (25 ± 38 vs –21 ± 32 mL⋅min-1⋅m-2; P = 0.01), associated with increased lipid utilization during exercise (r = 0.50, P = 0.02). Regular exercise before nutrient provision also augmented remodeling of skeletal muscle phospholipids and protein content of the glucose transport protein GLUT4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Experiments investigating exercise training and metabolic health should consider nutrient-exercise timing, and exercise performed before versus after nutrient intake (ie, in the fasted state) may exert beneficial effects on lipid utilization and reduce postprandial insulinemia

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV

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    Abstract The parton-level top quark (t) forward-backward asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric (d̂ t) and chromomagnetic (Ό̂ t) moments have been measured using LHC pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected in the CMS detector in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1. The linearized variable AFB(1) is used to approximate the asymmetry. Candidate t t ÂŻ events decaying to a muon or electron and jets in final states with low and high Lorentz boosts are selected and reconstructed using a fit of the kinematic distributions of the decay products to those expected for t t ÂŻ final states. The values found for the parameters are AFB(1)=0.048−0.087+0.095(stat)−0.029+0.020(syst),Ό̂t=−0.024−0.009+0.013(stat)−0.011+0.016(syst), and a limit is placed on the magnitude of | d̂ t| &lt; 0.03 at 95% confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

    An embedding technique to determine ττ backgrounds in proton-proton collision data