86 research outputs found

    Qualidade de Vida e Atitudes dos Idosos Face à Velhice

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    A problemática do envelhecimento tem assumido, nos últimos anos, uma crescente importância na consciência coletiva da população, tornando-se cada vez mais importante compreender a população idosa e a sua realidade. Posto isto, foi realizado um estudo quantitativo e correlacional, que teve como objectivo avaliar a qualidade de vida e atitudes face à velhice de idosos, bem como a relação entre estas e as variáveis sociodemográficas e familiares. Foram inquiridos 100 idosos, com mais de 65 anos e sem deficit cognitivo . Para a recolha de dados utilizou-se uma entrevista estruturada, constituída dados sóciodemográficos do idoso, WHOQOL-AGE (Caballero, Miret, Power, Chatterji, Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Koskinen, Leonardi, Olaya, Haro &Ayuso-Mateos, 2013) e o AAQ ( Laidlaw, Power, Schmidt and the WHOQOL-OLD Group, 2007). Dos resultados destacamos os seguintes: A amostra é constituída por 52% de idosos do sexo masculino tendo uma média de idades de 74,7 (DP=6,8). È no fator Perdas Psicossociais e no Desenvolvimento Psicológico que os idosos têm uma melhor atitude face ao envelhecimento. É no item “Tem dinheiro suficiente para satisfazer as suas necessidades?” que os idosos apresentam uma menor qualidade de vida. Não ter doença diagnosticada e ser do sexo masculino permitem ter melhores atitudes face ao envelhecimento. A Qualidade de Vida está relacionada com a idade, com o estado de saúde e com a intensidade de preocupação da família. Constatou-se que os idosos que não estão institucionalizados apresentam uma melhor qualidade de vida e uma melhor atitude face à velhice. Quem não precisa de ajudas técnicas para se movimentar apresenta uma melhor qualidade de vida. Diferenças nas atitudes face ao envelhecimento consoante a residência onde habita são significativas nas mudanças físicas e no desenvolvimento psicológico sendo que os idosos que não vivem em lares têm uma atitude mais positiva em ambos os fatores. / Over the past few years the issue of aging has played a growing importance in the population`s collective consciousness becoming increasingly important to understand the elderly population and this reality. Therefore a quantitative correlational study was performed to assess the quality of life of seniors and their attitudes towards old age, and the relationship between these and the socio-demographic and family factors. 100 seniors with more than 65 years and without cognitive deficit were surveyed. For data collection we used a structured interview consisting of sociodemographic data of the elderly, WHOQOL-AGE (Caballero Miret Power Chatterji Tobiasz-Adamczyk Koskinen Leonardi Olaya Ayuso-Mateos & Haro 2013) and AAQ (Laidlaw Power Schmidt and the WHOQOL-OLD Group 2007). We highlight: The sample is composed of 52% of males with a mean age of 74.7 (SD = 6.8). It is in the factor Psychosocial Losses and Psychological Development that elderly people have a better attitude towards aging. It is in the item "Do you have enough money to meet your needs?" that seniors show less quality of life. Not having illness and being male allows having better attitudes towards aging. Quality of Life is related to age, health condition and the intensity of family concerns. It was observed that the elderly who are not institutionalized have a better quality of life and a better attitude towards old age. Who does not need assistive devices to move around has a better quality of life. Differences in attitudes towards aging, according to residency, are significant in physical changes and psychological development, thus verifying that elderly who do not live in nursing homes have a more positive attitude in both factors

    Authentication of ginkgo biloba herbal products by a novel quantitative real-time PCR approach

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    Ginkgo biloba is a widely used medicinal plant. Due to its potential therapeutic effects, it is an ingredient in several herbal products, such as plant infusions and plant food supplements (PFS). Currently, ginkgo is one of the most popular botanicals used in PFS. Due to their popularity and high cost, ginkgo-containing products are prone to be fraudulently substituted by other plant species. Therefore, this work aimed at developing a method for G. biloba detection and quantification. A new internal transcribe spacer (ITS) marker was identified, allowing the development of a ginkgo-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the ITS region, with high specificity and sensitivity, down to 0.02 pg of DNA. Additionally, a normalized real-time PCR approach using the delta cycle quantification (ΔCq) method was proposed for the effective quantification of ginkgo in plant mixtures. The method exhibited high performance parameters, namely PCR efficiency, coefficient of correlation and covered dynamic range (50-0.01%), achieving limits of detection and quantification of 0.01% (w/w) of ginkgo in tea plant (Camellia sinensis). The quantitative approach was successfully validated with blind mixtures and further applied to commercial ginkgo-containing herbal infusions. The estimated ginkgo contents of plant mixture samples suggest adulterations due to reduction or almost elimination of ginkgo. In this work, useful and robust tools were proposed to detect/quantify ginkgo in herbal products, which suggests the need for a more effective and stricter control of such products.This work was supported by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia) under the Partnership Agreements UIDB 50006/2020 and UIDB 00690/2020. L. Grazina is grateful to FCT grant (SFRH/BD/132462/2017) financed by POPH-QREN (subsidised by FSE and MCTES).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Towards authentication of Korean ginseng-containing foods: differentiation of five Panax species by a novel diagnostic tool

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    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is one of the most valuable medicinal plants, recognised for its neuroprotection and other beneficial health effects. It is present in a wide range of food products, namely plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal infusions. However, other Panax species, having distinct therapeutic effects, are also known as ginseng, pointing out the need of authenticating such products. The present work aims at proposing a new high-resolution melting (HRM) method to differentiate five Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, P. notoginseng, P. japonicus and P. trifolius), targeting the gene encoding the dammarenediol synthase, involved in the biosynthesis pathway of ginsenosides. A Panax-specific real-time PCR assay was successfully developed with high analytical performance parameters (Efficiency = 100.5 %, R2 = 0.995, dynamic range 10 ng-1 pg of ginseng DNA). Panax DNA was detected in 17 out of 23 ginseng-containing commercial foods, including herbal infusions and PFS. For the first time, HRM analysis differentiated five Panax species with high level of confidence (>98 %), which corroborated sequencing data. Fourteen products were successfully clustered, being all except one in accordance with their labelling statements. Therefore, the present work proposes a reliable and high-throughput tool to authenticate ginseng products that could be useful for control laboratories.The authors acknowledge the support of project UIDB 00690/2020 funded by FCT/MCTES through national funds. The authors are grateful for the supply of leaves from the Botanical Garden of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, Scotland), Botanical Garden of University of Porto (Porto, Portugal), Botanical garden of UTAD (Vila Real, Portugal), as well as to the voucher seeds from the RBG (Kew, Ardingly, West Sussex, UK), USDA-ARS Germplasm (Beltsville, MD, USA) and NCRPIS/Iowa State university (Ames, IA, USA).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Tracing Styphnolobium japonicum (syn: Sophora japonica) as a potential adulterant of ginkgo-containing foods by real-time PCR

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    The rising demand for ginkgo-containing products and their high economic value make them desirable targets for adulteration, particularly by the partial substitution with other plant species. Styphnolobium japonicum (plant rich in flavonol glycosides) is known as a potential adulterant of ginkgo-based foods. Therefore, this work aimed at developing a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for the identification/quantification of S. japonicum as an adulterant of ginkgo-containing products. The method used the EvaGreen dye, targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of S. japonicum, providing acceptable performance parameters and a sensitivity down to 0.02 pg of DNA. Moreover, a qPCR assay was established using binary mixtures of S. japonicum in G. biloba, covering the dynamic range of 50−0.05% (w/w) of added adulterant. After trueness evaluation with blind samples, the approach was applied to 21 commercial herbal infusions, from which one was positive to S. japonicum, but below the limit of quantification (0.05 %), suggesting its inadvertent contamination rather than adulteration. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, a specific method was proposed to quantify potential adulterations of G. biloba products with S. japonicum, providing an accurate and cost-effective tool to authenticate ginkgo-containing herbal foods.The work was supported through the projects UIDB/50006/2020 and UIDB/00690/2020, funded by FCT/MCTES (Fundação para a Ciˆencia e Tecnologia and Minist´erio da Ciˆencia, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior) through national funds. L. Grazina thanks FCT and ESF (European Social Fund) through POCH (Programa Operacional Capital Humano) for her PhD grant SFRH/BD/132462/2017. J. Costa thanks FCT for funding through program DL 57/2016 – Norma transitória (SFRH/BPD/102404/2014).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Botanical authentication of globe artichoke-containing foods: Differentiation of Cynara scolymus by a novel HRM approach

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    Cynara scolymus L., known as globe artichoke, is a medicinal plant widely used in plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal infusions due to its beneficial health properties. The high demand for artichoke-containing products can lead to adulteration practices. In this work, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system coupled to high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was proposed to differentiate C. scolymus from other Cynara species. Hence, a Cynara-specific real-time PCR assay was successfully developed with high analytical performance, achieving a sensitivity of 0.4 pg of globe artichoke DNA. HRM analysis enabled the discrimination of C. scolymus, with a high level of confidence (>98%), corroborating sequencing data. Application results to artichokecontaining PFS and mixed herbal infusions allowed confirming the presence of C. scolymus in 38% of the samples, suggesting the substitution/mislabelling of globe artichoke in 2 samples and the need for further efforts to increase DNA amplifiability of PFS.The authors are grateful to the University of Lisbon and Jardim Botˆanico de Coimbra (Portugal), Real Jardin Bot´anico Juan Carlos (Spain), Seed Conservation Department of Royal Botanic Garden (UK) and Jardin des plantes et Botanique (France) for the supply of plant material. The authors acknowledge the support of the project UIDB/00690/2020, subsidised by FCT/MCTES (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior) through national funds.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Authentication of Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil using novel DNA-based approaches: detection of olive and soybean oils as potential adulterants

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    Argan oil is a traditional product obtained from the fruits of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.), which is endemic only to Morocco. It is commercialized worldwide as cosmetic and food-grade argan oil, attaining very high prices in the international market. Therefore, argan oil is very prone to adulteration with cheaper vegetable oils. The present work aims at developing novel real-time PCR approaches to detect olive and soybean oils as potential adulterants, as well as ascertain the presence of argan oil. The ITS region, matK and lectin genes were the targeted markers, allowing to detect argan, olive and soybean DNA down to 0.01 pg, 0.1 pg and 3.2 pg, respectively, with real-time PCR. Moreover, to propose practical quantitative methods, two calibrant models were developed using the normalized ΔCq method to estimate potential adulterations of argan oil with olive or soybean oils. The results allowed for the detection and quantification of olive and soybean oils within 50–1% and 25–1%, respectively, both in argan oil. Both approaches provided acceptable performance parameters and accurate determinations, as proven by their applicability to blind mixtures. Herein, new qualitative and quantitative PCR assays are proposed for the first time as reliable and high-throughput tools to authenticate and valorize argan oil.This work was supported by the FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia) through projects FCT/CNRST (Portugal/Morocco) (FCT/6460/6/6/2017/S) and the strategic funding of UIDB/50006/2020 | UIDP/50006/2020. This work was also funded by the European Union (EU) through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER funds through NORTE-01-0145-FEDER- 000052) and the project SYSTEMIC (Knowledge Hub on Food and Nutrition Security, ERA-Net Cofund ERA-HDHL no. 696300). J. Costa and I. Mafra thank the FCT for funding through the Individual Call to Scientific Employment Stimulus (2021.03583.CEECIND/CP1662/CT0012 and 2021.03670.CEECIND/CP1662/CT0011, respectively). L. Grazina is grateful to the FCT for the grant (SFRH/BD/132462/2017) financed by POPH-QREN (subsidized by FSE and MCTES). The authors are grateful to the Groupement des Coopératives Targanine for supplying the argan oil sample. J.S. Amaral is grateful to the FCT for financial support through national funds FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC) to CIMO (UIDB/00690/2020 e UIDP/00690/2020) and SusTEC (LA/P/0007/2020).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Machine learning approaches applied to GC-FID fatty acid profiles to discriminate wild from farmed salmon

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    In the last decade, there has been an increasing demand for wild-captured fish, which attains higher prices compared to farmed species, thus being prone to mislabeling practices. In this work, fatty acid composition coupled to advanced chemometrics was used to discriminate wild from farmed salmon. The lipids extracted from salmon muscles of different production methods and origins (26 wild from Canada, 25 farmed from Canada, 24 farmed from Chile and 25 farmed from Norway) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). All the tested chemometric approaches, namely principal components analysis (PCA), t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) and seven machine learning classifiers, namely k-nearest neighbors (kNN), decision tree, support vector machine (SVM), random forest, artificial neural networks (ANN), naïve Bayes and AdaBoost, allowed for differentiation between farmed and wild salmons using the 17 features obtained from chemical analysis. PCA did not allow clear distinguishing between salmon geographical origin since farmed samples from Canada and Chile overlapped. Nevertheless, using the 17 features in the models, six out of the seven tested machine learning classifiers allowed a classification accuracy of ≥99%, with ANN, naïve Bayes, random forest, SVM and kNN presenting 100% accuracy on the test dataset. The classification models were also assayed using only the best features selected by a reduction algorithm and the best input features mapped by t-SNE. The classifier kNN provided the best discrimination results because it correctly classified all samples according to production method and origin, ultimately using only the three most important features (16:0, 18:2n6c and 20:3n3 + 20:4n6). In general, the classifiers presented good generalization with the herein proposed approach being simple and presenting the advantage of requiring only common equipment existing in most labs.This work was supported by the European project FOODINTEGRITY (FP7-KBBE-2013-single-stage, under grant agreement No 613688) and FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal) under the Partnership Agreements UIDB 50006/2020, UIDB 00690/2020 (CIMO) and UIDB/5757/2020 (CeDRI). L. Grazina and M.A. Nunes acknowledge the FCT grant SFRH/BD/132462/2017 and SFRH/BD/130131/2017 financed by POPH-QREN (subsidised by FSE and MCTES).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Assessment of electrical effects of ohmic heating on structural and immunoreactivity properties of bovine betalactoglobulin

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    This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the scope of the strategic funding of UID/BIO/04469/2019 unit and BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000004) funded by the European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 - Programa Operacional Regional do Norte. This work was also supported by FCT and POCI through project AlleRiskAssess (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-031720 – PTDC/BAA-AGR/31720/2017). C. Villa is grateful to FCT grant (PD/BD/114576/2016) financed by POPH-QREN (subsidised by FSE and MCTES). R. Rodrigues is grateful to FCT grant with reference SFRH/BD/110723/2015.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Effect of dry-salt processing on the textural properties and cell wall polysaccharides of cv. Thasos black olives

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    BACKGROUND: Thasos is an olive variety cultivated mainly in Greece used to produce ‘naturally black dry-salted olives’. This process consists in placing the olives in disposed layers with coarse sodium chloride. The loss of water and other solutes gradually debitters and wrinkles the fruits. In this study, the effect of dry-salt processing on the texture and cell wall polysaccharide composition was investigated. RESULTS: This type of processing affected primarily the mechanical properties of the olive flesh. In processed olives, this tissue was approximately 4.5 times stronger and also more deformable up to failure and stiffer than that from the raw olives. The dry-salt processing had its strongest effect on pectic polysaccharides. This included the increment of solubilization of arabinose-rich polymers in aqueous solutions, and thus their partial loss to the soak medium during dry-salting. Contrarily, galacturonic acid-rich polymers were further retained in the processed olives, probably by their stabilization within the cell walls by reduction of the electrostatic repulsion between the acidic groups of these polysaccharides due to sodium ions. CONCLUSION: The texture improvement of olive flesh by dry-salt processing seems to be correlated with the reorganization of the galacturonic acid-rich pectic polysaccharides into the cell wall of the fruit

    Identification of a 0.4 Kb deletion region in 10q26 associated with endometrial carcinoma

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    We have identified an allelic deletion common region in the q26 region of chromosome 10 in endometrial carcinomas, which has been reported previously as a potential target of genetic alterations related to this neoplasia. An allelotyping analysis of 19 pairs of tumoral and non-tumoral samples was accomplished using seven microsatellite polymorphic markers mapping in the 10q26 chromosomal region. Loss of heterozygosity for one or more loci was detected in 29% of the endometrial carcinoma samples. The observed pattern of loss enabled the identification of a 3.5 Mb common deleted region located between the D10S587 and D10S186 markers. An additional result from an endometrial sample with evidence of a RER phenotype may suggest a more centromeric region of loss within the above-mentioned interval. This 401.84 Kb interval flanked by the D10S587 and D10S216 markers may be a plausible location for a putative suppressor gene involved in early stage endometrial carcinogenesis
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