1,175 research outputs found

    Two-to-one resonant multi-modal dynamics of horizontal/inclined cables. Part I : theoretical formulation and model validation

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    This paper is first of the two papers dealingwith analytical investigation of resonant multimodal dynamics due to 2:1 internal resonances in the finite-amplitude free vibrations of horizontal/inclined cables. Part I deals with theoretical formulation and validation of the general cable model. Approximate nonlinear partial differential equations of 3-D coupled motion of small sagged cables - which account for both spatio-temporal variation of nonlinear dynamic tension and system asymmetry due to inclined sagged configurations - are presented. A multidimensional Galerkin expansion of the solution ofnonplanar/planar motion is performed, yielding a complete set of system quadratic/cubic coefficients. With the aim of parametrically studying the behavior of horizontal/inclined cables in Part II [25], a second-order asymptotic analysis under planar 2:1 resonance is accomplished by the method of multiple scales. On accounting for higher-order effectsof quadratic/cubic nonlinearities, approximate closed form solutions of nonlinear amplitudes, frequencies and dynamic configurations of resonant nonlinear normal modes reveal the dependence of cable response on resonant/nonresonant modal contributions. Depending on simplifying kinematic modeling and assigned system parameters, approximate horizontal/inclined cable models are thoroughly validated by numerically evaluating statics and non-planar/planar linear/non-linear dynamics against those of the exact model. Moreover, the modal coupling role and contribution of system longitudinal dynamics are discussed for horizontal cables, showing some meaningful effects due to kinematic condensation

    Scale-Free model for governing universe dynamics

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    We investigate the effects of scale-free model on cosmology, providing, in this way, a statistical background in the framework of general relativity. In order to discuss properties and time evolution of some relevant universe dynamical parameters (cosmographic parameters), such as H(t)H(t) (Hubble parameter), q(t)q(t) (deceleration parameter), j(t)j(t) (jerk parameter) and s(t)s(t) (snap parameter), which are well re-defined in the framework of scale-free model, we analyze a comparison between WMAP data. Hence the basic purpose of the work is to consider this statistical interpretation of mass distribution of universe, in order to have a mass density ρ\rho dynamics, not inferred from Friedmann equations, via scale factor a(t)a(t). This model, indeed, has been used also to explain a possible origin and a viable explanation of cosmological constant, which assumes a statistical interpretation without the presence of extended theories of gravity; hence the problem of dark energy could be revisited in the context of a classical probability distribution of mass, which is, in particular, for the scale-free model, P(k)∌k−γP(k)\sim k^{-\gamma}, with 2<Îł<32<\gamma<3. The Λ\LambdaCDM model becomes, with these considerations, a consequence of the particular statistics together with the use of general relativity.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Volcanic spreading of Vesuvius, a new paradigm for interpreting its volcanic activity

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    We integrate geologic, structural, leveling and Differential SAR Interferometry data to show that Vesuvius began to spread onto its sedimentary substratum about 3,600 years ago. Moreover, we model the detected deformation with a solution of the lubrication approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations to show that spreading may continue for about 7,200 years more. Correlation of volcanic spreading with phases of the eruptive activity suggests that Plinian eruptions, which are thought to pose the major hazard, are less likely to occur in the near future.Published1-4partially_ope

    Neuroinflammation, Mast Cells, and Glia: Dangerous Liaisons

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    The perspective of neuroinflammation as an epiphenomenon following neuron damage is being replaced by the awareness of glia and their importance in neural functions and disorders. Systemic inflammation generates signals that communicate with the brain and leads to changes in metabolism and behavior, with microglia assuming a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Identification of potential peripheral-to-central cellular links is thus a critical step in designing effective therapeutics. Mast cells may fulfill such a role. These resident immune cells are found close to and within peripheral nerves and in brain parenchyma/meninges, where they exercise a key role in orchestrating the inflammatory process from initiation through chronic activation. Mast cells and glia engage in crosstalk that contributes to accelerate disease progression; such interactions become exaggerated with aging and increased cell sensitivity to stress. Emerging evidence for oligodendrocytes, independent of myelin and support of axonal integrity, points to their having strong immune functions, innate immune receptor expression, and production/response to chemokines and cytokines that modulate immune responses in the central nervous system while engaging in crosstalk with microglia and astrocytes. In this review, we summarize the findings related to our understanding of the biology and cellular signaling mechanisms of neuroinflammation, with emphasis on mast cell-glia interactions

    The Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uniporter: Structure, Function, and Pharmacology.

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    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is crucial for an array of cellular functions while an imbalance can elicit cell death. In this chapter, we briefly reviewed the various modes of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and our current understanding of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis in regards to cell physiology and pathophysiology. Further, this chapter focuses on the molecular identities, intracellular regulators as well as the pharmacology of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter complex

    The blockade of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase decreases symptoms and central sequelae in the medial prefrontal cortex of neuropathic rats

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Neuropathic pain is a chronic disease resulting from dysfunction within the "pain matrix". The basolateral amygdala (BLA) can modulate cortical functions and interactions between this structure and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are important for integrating emotionally salient information. In this study, we have investigated the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the morphofunctional changes occurring in the pre-limbic/infra-limbic (PL/IL) cortex in neuropathic rats.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The effect of <it>N</it>-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), a hybrid FAAH inhibitor and TPRV1 channel antagonist, was tested on nociceptive behaviour associated with neuropathic pain as well as on some phenotypic changes occurring on PL/IL cortex pyramidal neurons. Those neurons were identified as belonging to the BLA-mPFC pathway by electrical stimulation of the BLA followed by hind-paw pressoceptive stimulus application. Changes in their spontaneous and evoked activity were studied in sham or spared nerve injury (SNI) rats before or after repeated treatment with AA-5-HT. Consistently with the SNI-induced changes in PL/IL cortex neurons which underwent profound phenotypic reorganization, suggesting a profound imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the mPFC neurons, we found an increase in extracellular glutamate levels, as well as the up-regulation of FAAH and TRPV1 in the PL/IL cortex of SNI rats. Daily treatment with AA-5-HT restored cortical neuronal activity, normalizing the electrophysiological changes associated with the peripheral injury of the sciatic nerve. Finally, a single acute intra-PL/IL cortex microinjection of AA-5-HT transiently decreased allodynia more effectively than URB597 or I-RTX, a selective FAAH inhibitor or a TRPV1 blocker, respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These data suggest a possible involvement of endovanilloids in the cortical plastic changes associated with peripheral nerve injury and indicate that therapies able to normalize endovanilloid transmission may prove useful in ameliorating the symptoms and central sequelae associated with neuropathic pain.</p

    Aberrant epithelial GREM1 expression initiates colonic tumorigenesis from cells outside the stem cell niche

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    Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is characterized by the development of mixed-morphology colorectal tumors and is caused by a 40-kb genetic duplication that results in aberrant epithelial expression of the gene encoding mesenchymal bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, GREM1. Here we use HMPS tissue and a mouse model of the disease to show that epithelial GREM1 disrupts homeostatic intestinal morphogen gradients, altering cell fate that is normally determined by position along the vertical epithelial axis. This promotes the persistence and/or reacquisition of stem cell properties in Lgr5-negative progenitor cells that have exited the stem cell niche. These cells form ectopic crypts, proliferate, accumulate somatic mutations and can initiate intestinal neoplasia, indicating that the crypt base stem cell is not the sole cell of origin of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we show that epithelial expression of GREM1 also occurs in traditional serrated adenomas, sporadic premalignant lesions with a hitherto unknown pathogenesis, and these lesions can be considered the sporadic equivalents of HMPS polyps

    Turbot reovirus (SMReV) genome encoding a FAST protein with a non-AUG start site

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A virus was isolated from diseased turbot <it>Scophthalmus maximus </it>in China. Biophysical and biochemical assays, electron microscopy, and genome electrophoresis revealed that the virus belonged to the genus <it>Aquareovirus</it>, and was named <it>Scophthalmus maximus </it>reovirus (SMReV). To the best of our knowledge, no complete sequence of an aquareovirus from marine fish has been determined. Therefore, the complete characterization and analysis of the genome of this novel aquareovirus will facilitate further understanding of the taxonomic distribution of aquareovirus species and the molecular mechanism of its pathogenesis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The full-length genome sequences of SMReV were determined. It comprises eleven dsRNA segments covering 24,042 base pairs and has the largest S4 genome segment in the sequenced aquareoviruses. Sequence analysis showed that all of the segments contained six conserved nucleotides at the 5' end and five conserved nucleotides at the 3' end (5'-GUUUUA ---- UCAUC-3'). The encoded amino acid sequences share the highest sequence identities with the respective proteins of aquareoviruses in species group <it>Aquareovirus </it>A. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major outer capsid protein VP7 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were performed. Members in <it>Aquareovirus </it>were clustered in two groups, one from fresh water fish and the other from marine fish. Furthermore, a fusion associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein NS22, which is translated from a non-AUG start site, was identified in the S7 segment.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study has provided the complete genome sequence of a novel isolated aquareovirus from marine fish. Amino acids comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested that SMReV was a new aquareovirus in the species group <it>Aquareovirus </it>A. Phylogenetic analysis among aquareoviruses revealed that VP7 could be used as a reference to divide the aquareovirus from hosts in fresh water or marine. In addition, a FAST protein with a non-AUG start site was identified, which partially contributed to the cytopathic effect caused by the virus infection. These results provide new insights into the virus-host and virus-environment interactions.</p

    Beam test performance of a prototype module with Short Strip ASICs for the CMS HL-LHC tracker upgrade

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    The Short Strip ASIC (SSA) is one of the four front-end chips designed for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC. Together with the Macro-Pixel ASIC (MPA) it will instrument modules containing a strip and a macro-pixel sensor stacked on top of each other. The SSA provides both full readout of the strip hit information when triggered, and, together with the MPA, correlated clusters called stubs from the two sensors for use by the CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger system. Results from the first prototype module consisting of a sensor and two SSA chips are presented. The prototype module has been characterized at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using a 120 GeV proton beam