6 research outputs found

    Phosphoregulation of the autophagy machinery by kinases and phosphatases

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    Eukaryotic cells use post-translational modifications to diversify and dynamically coordinate the function and properties of protein networks within various cellular processes. For example, the process of autophagy strongly depends on the balanced action of kinases and phosphatases. Highly conserved from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans, autophagy is a tightly regulated self-degradation process that is crucial for survival, stress adaptation, maintenance of cellular and organismal homeostasis, and cell differentiation and development. Many studies have emphasized the importance of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of autophagy and identified many of the core autophagy proteins as their direct targets. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on kinases and phosphatases acting on the core autophagy machinery and discuss the relevance of phosphoregulation for the overall process of autophagy

    Spatial control of avidity regulates initiation and progression of selective autophagy

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    Autophagosomes form at the endoplasmic reticulum in mammals, and between the vacuole and the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast. However, the roles of these sites and the mechanisms regulating autophagosome formation are incompletely understood. Vac8 is required for autophagy and recruits the Atg1 kinase complex to the vacuole. Here we show that Vac8 acts as a central hub to nucleate the phagophore assembly site at the vacuolar membrane during selective autophagy. Vac8 directly recruits the cargo complex via the Atg11 scaffold. In addition, Vac8 recruits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex independently of autophagy. Cargo-dependent clustering and Vac8-dependent sequestering of these early autophagy factors, along with local Atg1 activation, promote phagophore assembly site assembly at the vacuole. Importantly, ectopic Vac8 redirects autophagosome formation to the nuclear membrane, indicating that the vacuolar membrane is not specifically required. We propose that multiple avidity-driven interactions drive the initiation and progression of selective autophagy

    Vac8 spatially confines autophagosome formation at the vacuole

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    Autophagy is initiated by the formation of phagophore assembly sites (PAS), the precursors of autophagosomes. In mammals, PAS form throughout the cytosol in specialized subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In yeast, the PAS is also generated close to the ER, but always in the vicinity of the vacuole. How the PAS is anchored to the vacuole and the functional significance of this localization are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the PAS-vacuole connection for bulk autophagy in yeast. We show that Vac8 constitutes a vacuolar tether that stably anchors the PAS to the vacuole throughout autophagosome biogenesis via the PAS component Atg13. S. cerevisiae lacking Vac8 show inefficient autophagosome-vacuole fusion, and form fewer and smaller autophagosomes that often localize away from the vacuole. Thus, the stable PAS-vacuole connection established by Vac8 creates a confined space for autophagosome biogenesis between the ER and the vacuole and allows spatial coordination of autophagosome formation and autophagosome-vacuole fusion. These findings reveal that the spatial regulation of autophagosome formation at the vacuole is required for efficient bulk autophagy.</p

    Dual role of Mic10 in mitochondrial cristae organization and ATP synthase-linked metabolic adaptation and respiratory growth

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    Invaginations of the mitochondrial inner membrane, termed cristae, are hubs for oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) and the dimeric F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase play important roles in controlling cristae architecture. A fraction of the MICOS core subunit Mic10 is found in association with the ATP synthase, yet it is unknown whether this interaction is of relevance for mitochondrial or cellular functions. Here, we established conditions to selectively study the role of Mic10 at the ATP synthase. Mic10 variants impaired in MICOS functions stimulate ATP synthase oligomerization like wild-type Mic10 and promote efficient inner membrane energization, adaptation to non-fermentable carbon sources, and respiratory growth. Mic10's functions in respiratory growth largely depend on Mic10(ATPsynthase), not on Mic10(MICOS). We conclude that Mic10 plays a dual role as core subunit of MICOS and as partner of the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase, serving distinct functions in cristae shaping and respiratory adaptation and growth

    Posttranslational insertion of small membrane proteins by the bacterial signal recognition particle

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    Small membrane proteins represent a largely unexplored yet abundant class of proteins in pro- and eukaryotes. They essentially consist of a single transmembrane domain and are associated with stress response mechanisms in bacteria. How these proteins are inserted into the bacterial membrane is unknown. Our study revealed that in Escherichia coli, the 27-amino-acid-long model protein YohP is recognized by the signal recognition particle (SRP), as indicated by in vivo and in vitro site-directed cross-linking. Cross-links to SRP were also observed for a second small membrane protein, the 33-amino-acid-long YkgR. However, in contrast to the canonical cotranslational recognition by SRP, SRP was found to bind to YohP posttranslationally. In vitro protein transport assays in the presence of a SecY inhibitor and proteoliposome studies demonstrated that SRP and its receptor FtsY are essential for the posttranslational membrane insertion of YohP by either the SecYEG translocon or by the YidC insertase. Furthermore, our data showed that the yohP mRNA localized preferentially and translation-independently to the bacterial membrane in vivo. In summary, our data revealed that YohP engages an unique SRP-dependent posttranslational insertion pathway that is likely preceded by an mRNA targeting step. This further highlights the enormous plasticity of bacterial protein transport machineries