1,781 research outputs found

    Chemokine-chemokine receptor pathway as a tumor therapeutic target: the significance of SDF-1CXCR4 pair

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    Chemokines, a large family of chemotactic cytokines, are the major regulators of immune cell trafficking. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, or CXCL12) and its cognate receptor, CXCR4 (CD184), are an important ligand-receptor pair, which play a crucial role in numerous biological processes including hematopoiesis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that SDF-1-CXCR4 pair plays important roles in regulating processes essential for tumor biology. Molecular strategies aimed at inhibiting the SDF-1-CXCR4 pathway, such as small peptide CXCR4-specific antagonists, anti-CXCR4 antibodies, and small interfering RNA might therefore prevent tumor progression and metastasis. In the present Dance Round, we focus on (i) the role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 signaling in the regulation of tumor spread, growth, and vascularization, and (ii) the significance of this ligand-receptor pair as a novel therapeutic target for neoplastic disease.Biomedical Reviews 2005; 16: 77-81

    Auricular Acupuncture May Suppress Epileptic Seizures via Activating the Parasympathetic Nervous System: A Hypothesis Based on Innovative Methods

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    Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that auricular acupuncture has a significant effect on inducing parasympathetic tone. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder consisting of recurrent seizures resulting from excessive, uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. Autonomic imbalance demonstrating an increased sympathetic activity and a reduced parasympathetic activation is involved in the development and progress of epileptic seizures. Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system such as vagus nerve stimulation has been used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Here, we propose that auricular acupuncture may suppress epileptic seizures via activating the parasympathetic nervous system

    Trisomy Correction in Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    SummaryHuman trisomies can alter cellular phenotypes and produce congenital abnormalities such as Down syndrome (DS). Here we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from DS fibroblasts and introduced a TKNEO transgene into one copy of chromosome 21 by gene targeting. When selecting against TKNEO, spontaneous chromosome loss was the most common cause for survival, with a frequency of ∼10−4, while point mutations, epigenetic silencing, and TKNEO deletions occurred at lower frequencies in this unbiased comparison of inactivating mutations. Mitotic recombination events resulting in extended loss of heterozygosity were not observed in DS iPSCs. The derived, disomic cells proliferated faster and produced more endothelia in vivo than their otherwise isogenic trisomic counterparts, but in vitro hematopoietic differentiation was not consistently altered. Our study describes a targeted removal of a human trisomy, which could prove useful in both clinical and research applications

    Accelerating polygon beam with peculiar features

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    We report on a novel kind of accelerating beams that follow parabolic paths in free space. In fact, this accelerating peculiar polygon beam (APPB) is induced by the spectral phase symmetrization of the regular polygon beam (RPB) with five intensity beam (RPB) with five intensity peaks, and it preserves a peculiar symmetric structure during propagation. Specially, such beam not only exhibits autofocusing property, but also possesses two types of accelerating intensity maxima, i.e., the cusp and spot-point structure, which does not exist in the previously reported accelerating beams. We also provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of this spatially accelerating beam through catastrophe theory. Moreover, an experimental scheme based on a digital micromirror device (DMD) with the binary spectral hologram is proposed to generate the target beam by precise modulation, and a longitudinal needle-like focus is observed around the focal region. The experimental results confirm the peculiar features presented in the theoretical findings. Further, the APPB is verified to exhibit self-healing property during propagation with either obstructed cusp or spot intensity maxima point reconstructing after a certain distance. Hence, we believe that the APPB will facilitate the applications in the areas of particle manipulation, material processing and optofludics

    Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors in the Retinas of Diabetic Rats

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    Recent reports show that ER stress plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy (DR), but ER stress is a complicated process involving a network of signaling pathways and hundreds of factors, What factors involved in DR are not yet understood. We selected 89 ER stress factors from more than 200, A rat diabetes model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The expression of 89 ER stress-related factors was found in the retinas of diabetic rats, at both 1- and 3-months after development of diabetes, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. There were significant changes in expression levels of 13 and 12 ER stress-related factors in the diabetic rat retinas in the first and third month after the development of diabetes, Based on the array results, homocysteine- inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1(HERP), and synoviolin(HRD1) were studied further by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses showed that the expression of HERP was reduced in the retinas of diabetic rats in first and third month. The expression of Hrd1 did not change significantly in the retinas of diabetic rats in the first month but was reduced in the third month

    Traditional Chinese Medicine ZHENG Identification Provides a Novel Stratification Approach in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

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    Background. We aimed to apply the ZHENG identification to provide an easy and useful tool to stratify the patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) through exploring the correlation between the quantified scores of AR symptoms and the TCM ZHENGs. Methods. A total of 114 AR patients were enrolled in this observational study. All participants received the examinations of anterior rhinoscopy and acoustic rhinometry. Their blood samples were collected for measurement of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), blood eosinophil count (Eos), and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). They also received two questionnaire to assess the severity scores of AR symptoms and quantified TCM ZHENG scores. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine explanatory factors for the score of AR manifestations. Results. IgE and ECP level, duration of AR, the 2 derived TCMZHENG scores of “Yin-Xu − Yang-Xu”, and “Qi-Xu + Blood-Xu” were 5 explanatory variables to predict the severity scores of AR symptoms. The patients who had higher scores of “Yin-Xu − Yang-Xu” or “Qi-Xu + Blood-Xu” tended to manifest as “sneezer and runner” or “blockers,” respectively. Conclusions. The TCM ZHENG scores correlated with the severity scores of AR symptoms and provided an easy and useful tool to stratify the AR patients