161 research outputs found

    Spraying exogenous hormones alleviate impact of weak-light on yield by improving leaf carbon and nitrogen metabolism in fresh waxy maize

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    Insufficient light during the growth periods has become one of the main factors restricting maize yield with global climate change. Exogenous hormones application is a feasible measure to alleviate abiotic stresses on crop productivity. In this study, a field trial was conducted to investigate the effects of spraying exogenous hormones on yield, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) accumulation, leaf carbon and N metabolism of fresh waxy maize under weak-light stress in 2021 and 2022. Five treatments including natural light (CK), weak-light after pollination (Z), spraying water (ZP1), exogenous Phytase Q9 (ZP2) and 6-benzyladenine (ZP3) under weak-light after pollination were set up using two hybrids suyunuo5 (SYN5) and jingkenuo2000 (JKN2000). Results showed that weak-light stress significantly reduced the average fresh ear yield (49.8%), fresh grain yield (47.9%), DM (53.3%) and N accumulation (59.9%), and increased grain moisture content. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) of ear leaf after pollination decreased under Z. Furthermore, weak-light decreased the activities of RuBPCase and PEPCase, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in ear leaves, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. And the decrease was greater on JKN2000. While ZP2 and ZP3 treatments increased the fresh ear yield (17.8%, 25.3%), fresh grain yield (17.2%, 29.5%), DM (35.8%, 44.6%) and N (42.5%, 52.4%) accumulation, and decreased grain moisture content compared with Z. The Pn, Tr increased under ZP2 and ZP3. Moreover, the ZP2 and ZP3 treatments improved the activities of RuBPCase, PEPCase; NR, GS, GOGAT; SOD, CAT, POD in ear leaves, and decreased MDA content during grain filling stage. The results also showed the mitigative effect of ZP3 was greater than ZP2, and the improvement effect was more significant on JKN2000

    Extended ammonia observations towards the 'Integral-Shaped Filament'

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    Recent observations suggest a scenario in which filamentary structures in the ISM represent the first step towards clumps/cores and eventually star formation. The densest filaments would then fragment into prestellar cores owing to gravitational instability. We seek to understand the roles filamentary structures play in high-mass star formation. We mapped the integral-shaped filament (ISF) in NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2). The whole filamentary structure is uniformly and fully sampled. We find that the morphology revealed by the map of velocity-integrated intensity of the NH3 (1, 1) line is closely associated with the dust ridge. We identify 6 "clumps" related to the well known OMC-1 to 5 and 11 "sub-clumps" within the map and they are separated not randomly but in roughly equal intervals along the ISF. The average spacing of clumps is 11.30'±\pm1.31' (1.36±\pm0.16 pc ) and the average spacing of sub-clumps is 7.18'±\pm1.19' (0.86±\pm0.14 pc). These spacings agree well with the predicted values of the thermal (0.86 pc) and turbulent sausage instability (1.43 pc) by adopting a cylindric geometry of the ISF with an inclination of 6060^{\circ} with respect to the line of sight. We also find a velocity gradient of about 0.6 km s-1 pc-1 that runs along the ISF which likely arises from an overall rotation of the Orion A molecular cloud. The inferred ratio between rotational and gravitational energy is well below unity. Furthermore, fluctuations are seen in the centroid velocity diagram along the ISF. The OMC-1 to 5 clouds are located close to the local extrema of the fluctuations, which suggests that there exist gas flows associated with these clumps in the ISF. The derived NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) rotation temperatures in the OMC-1 are about 30-40 K. In OMC-2, OMC-3, and the northern part of OMC-4, we find higher and lower temperatures at the boundaries and in the interior, respectively.Comment: Accepted by A&A. 14 pages, 14 figure

    Elevated monocyte-to-HDL cholesterol ratio predicts post-stroke depression

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    ObjectivesInflammation plays an important role in the development of depression after stroke. Monocyte-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio (MHR) recently emerged as a novel comprehensive inflammatory indicator in recent years. This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between MHR levels and post-stroke depression (PSD).MethodsFrom February 2019 to September 2021, patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) were recruited within 7 days post-stroke from the two centers and blood samples were collected after admission. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17) was used to measure depressive symptoms at 3 months after stroke. Patients were given the DSM-V criteria for diagnosis of PSD.ResultsOf the 411 enrolled patients, 92 (22.38%) patients were diagnosed with PSD at 3-months follow-up. The results also showed significantly higher level of MHR in patients with depression [0.81 (IQR 0.67–0.87) vs. 0.61 (IQR 0.44–0.82), P < 0.001] at admission than patients without depression. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that MHR (OR 6.568, 95% CI: 2.123–14.565, P = 0.015) was an independent risk factor for the depression at 3 months after stroke. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio of PSD was 5.018 (95% CI: 1.694–14.867, P = 0.004) for the highest tertile of MHR compared with the lowest tertile. Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cut-off value of MHR as an indicator for prediction of PSD was projected to be 0.55, which yielded a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 68.3%, with the area under the curve at 0.660 (95% CI: 0.683–0.781; P = 0.003).ConclusionElevated level of MHR was associated with PSD at 3 months, suggesting that MHR might be a useful Inflammatory markers to predict depression after stroke

    Ammonia observations towards the Aquila Rift cloud complex

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    We surveyed the Aquila Rift complex including the Serpens South and W40 region in the NH3_3(1,1) and (2,2) transitions making use of the Nanshan 26-m telescope. The kinetic temperatures of the dense gas in the Aquila Rift complex range from 8.9 to 35.0K with an average of 15.3±\pm6.1K. Low gas temperatures associate with Serpens South ranging from 8.9 to 16.8K with an average 12.3±\pm1.7K, while dense gas in the W40 region shows higher temperatures ranging from 17.7 to 35.0K with an average of 25.1±\pm4.9 K. A comparison of kinetic temperatures against HiGal dust temperatures indicates that the gas and dust temperatures are in agreement in the low mass star formation region of Serpens South. In the high mass star formation region W40, the measured gas kinetic temperatures are higher than those of the dust. The turbulent component of the velocity dispersion of NH3_3(1,1) is found to be positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperature, which indicates that the dense gas may be heated by dissipation of turbulent energy. For the fractional total-NH3 abundance obtained by a comparison with Herschel infrared continuum data representing dust emission we find values from 0.1 to 21×108\times 10^{-8} with an average of 6.9(±4.5)×108(\pm 4.5)\times 10^{-8}. Serpens South also shows a fractional total-NH3 abundance ranging from 0.2 to 21×108\times 10^{-8} with an average of 8.6(±3.8)×108\pm 3.8)\times 10^{-8}. In W40, values are lower, between 0.1 and 4.3×108\times 10^{-8} with an average of 1.6(±1.4)×108\pm 1.4)\times 10^{-8}. Weak velocity gradients demonstrate that the rotational energy is a negligible fraction of the gravitational energy. In W40, gas and dust temperatures are not strongly dependent on the projected distance to the recently formed massive stars. Overall, the morphology of the mapped region is ring-like, with strong emission at lower and weak emission at higher Galactic longitudes

    Activity-Based Household Travel Survey Through Smartphone Apps in Tennessee

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    RES 2020-19Activity-based household travel surveys (HTS) are one of primary data sources for many research fields at Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT). Traditional HTS methods are often costly, time-consuming, less scalable, and difficult to achieve high quality and accuracy. Recent years have witnessed a fast-growing interest in conducting HTS through smartphone apps to address survey issues and improve quality of collected survey data. A research project on activity based HTS through smartphone apps for both Android and iOS has been performed. The overarching goal of this research project is to develop an effective, economical, scalable HTS solution for TDOT. To achieve this goal, with the guidance and support from TDOT, the research team has 1) developed a smartphone-based effective, scalable, and secure application for household travel surveys that can span from days to months, 2) integrated fine-grained location information in submitted travel data by leveraging smartphone built-in sensor technologies, and 3) validated the developed HTS application by running a pilot HTS with the application. The pilot survey lasted three months. During the survey study, over 800 people downloaded the mobile apps and registered an account. Over 200 participants have been given a reward for completing the survey. Over 1,800 trips were submitted by those rewarded participants. This research project brings the following benefits to TDOT: 1) A tested, comprehensive smartphone app based HTS solution, 2) Important findings about smartphone app based HTS gained from running the pilot survey study, and 3) An anonymized survey dataset for research exploration obtained from the pilot survey study. A number of key findings as well as recommendations are also generated from this research project and they will help TDOT conduct HTS more effectively and generate more research results in the future

    Cloud-cloud collision and star formation in G323.18+0.15

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    We studied the cloud-cloud collision candidate G323.18+0.15 based on signatures of induced filaments, clumps, and star formation. We used archival molecular spectrum line data from the SEDIGISM 13^{13}CO(JJ\,=\,2--1) survey, from the Mopra southern Galactic plane CO survey, and infrared to radio data from the GLIMPSE, MIPS, Hi-GAL, and SGPS surveys. Our new result shows that the G323.18+0.15 complex is 3.55kpc away from us and consists of three cloud components, G323.18a, G323.18b, and G323.18c. G323.18b shows a perfect U-shape structure, which can be fully complemented by G323.18a, suggesting a collision between G323.18a and the combined G323.18bc filamentary structure. One dense compressed layer (filament) is formed at the bottom of G323.18b, where we detect a greatly increased velocity dispersion. The bridge with an intermediate velocity in a position-velocity diagram appears between G323.18a and G323.18b, which corresponds to the compressed layer. G323.18a plus G323.18b as a whole are probably not gravitationally bound. This indicates that high-mass star formation in the compressed layer may have been caused by an accidental event. The column density in the compressed layer of about 1.36×10221.36 \times 10^{22}cm2^{-2} and most of the dense clumps and high-mass stars are located there. The average surface density of classI and classII young stellar objects (YSOs) inside the G323.18+0.15 complex is much higher than the density in the surroundings. The timescale of the collision between G323.18a and G323.18b is 1.591.59Myr. This is longer than the typical lifetime of classI YSOs and is comparable to the lifetime of classII YSOs