2,808 research outputs found

    Ultrafast dynamics of a magnetic antivortex - Micromagnetic simulations

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    The antivortex is a fundamental magnetization structure which is the topological counterpart of the well-known magnetic vortex. We study here the ultrafast dynamic behavior of an isolated antivortex in a patterned Permalloy thin-film element. Using micromagnetic simulations we predict that the antivortex response to an ultrashort external field pulse is characterized by the production of a new antivortex as well as of a temporary vortex, followed by an annihilation process. These processes are complementary to the recently reported response of a vortex and, like for the vortex, lead to the reversal of the orientation of the antivortex core region. In addition to its fundamental interest, this dynamic magnetization process could be used for the generation and propagation of spin waves for novel logical circuits.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures. To be published in Physical Review B (R

    The impact of long-lasting microbial larvicides in reducing malaria transmission and clinical malaria incidence: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    BACKGROUND: The massive scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has led to a substantial increase in malaria vector insecticide resistance as well as in increased outdoor transmission, both of which hamper the effectiveness and efficiency of ITN and IRS. Long-lasting microbial larvicide can be a cost-effective new supplemental intervention tool for malaria control. METHODS/DESIGN: We will implement the long-lasting microbial larvicide intervention in 28 clusters in two counties in western Kenya. We will test FourStar controlled release larvicide (6 % by weight Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and 1 % Bacillus sphaerius) by applying FourStar controlled release granule formulation, 90-day briquettes, and 180-day briquettes in different habitat types. The primary endpoint is clinical malaria incidence rate and the secondary endpoint is malaria vector abundance and transmission intensity. The intervention will be conducted as a two-step approach. First, we will conduct a four-cluster trial (two clusters per county, with one of the two clusters randomly assigned to the intervention arm) to optimize the larvicide application scheme. Second, we will conduct an open-label, cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the larvicide. Fourteen clusters in each county will be assigned to intervention (treatment) or no intervention (control) by a block randomization on the basis of clinical malaria incidence, vector density, and human population size per site. We will treat each treatment cluster with larvicide for three rounds at 4-month intervals, followed by no treatment for the following 8 months. Next, we will switch the control and treatment sites. The former control sites will receive three rounds of larvicide treatment at appropriate time intervals, and former treatment sites will receive no larvicide. We will monitor indoor and outdoor vector abundance using CO2-baited CDC light traps equipped with collection bottle rotators. Clinical malaria data will be aggregated from government-run malaria treatment centers. DISCUSSION: Since current first-line vector intervention methods do not target outdoor transmission and will select for higher insecticide resistance, new methods beyond bed nets and IRS should be considered. Long-lasting microbial larviciding represents a promising new tool that can target both indoor and outdoor transmission and alleviate the problem of pyrethroid resistance. It also has the potential to diminish costs by reducing larvicide reapplications. If successful, it could revolutionize malaria vector control in Africa, just as long-lasting bed nets have done. TRIAL REGISTRATION: U.S. National Institute of Health, study ID NCT02392832 . Registered on 3 February 2015

    Lasing on nonlinear localized waves in curved geometry

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    The use of geometrical constraints opens many new perspectives in photonics and in fundamental studies of nonlinear waves. By implementing surface structures in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers as manifolds for curved space, we experimentally study the impacts of geometrical constraints on nonlinear wave localization. We observe localized waves pinned to the maximal curvature in an elliptical-ring, and confirm the reduction in the localization length of waves by measuring near and far field patterns, as well as the corresponding dispersion relation. Theoretically, analyses based on a dissipative model with a parabola curve give good agreement remarkably to experimental measurement on the transition from delocalized to localized waves. The introduction of curved geometry allows to control and design lasing modes in the nonlinear regime.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

    Apoptotic Cell Death and Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Human Colon Cancer Cells by an Active Fraction (HS7) from Taiwanofungus camphoratus

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    Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in the development of colon cancer. HS7 is an active fraction extracted from Taiwanofungus camphoratus, which had been widely used as complementary medicine for Taiwan cancer patients in the past decades. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of HS7 on the growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling suppression in human colon cancer cells. HS7 significantly inhibited proliferation of HT29, HCT116, and SW480 colon cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis induction was evidenced by DNA fragmentation and subG1 accumulation, which was associated with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. By using Tcf-dependent luciferase activity assay, HS7 was found to inhibit the β-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activities. In addition, HS7 strongly suppressed the binding of Tcf complexes to its DNA-binding site shown in electrophoretic mobility shift assay. This inhibition was further confirmed by the decreased protein levels of Tcf-4 and β-catenin. The β-catenin/Tcf downstream target genes, such as survivin, c-myc, cyclin D1, MMP7, and MT1-MMP involved in apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis were also diminished as well. These results indicate that Taiwanofungus camphoratus may provide a benefit as integrative medicine for the treatment of colon cancer