5,733 research outputs found

    A continuum-microscopic method based on IRBFs and control volume scheme for viscoelastic fluid flows

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    A numerical computation of continuum-microscopic model for visco-elastic flows based on the Integrated Radial Basis Function (IRBF) Control Volume and the Stochastic Simulation Techniques (SST) is reported in this paper. The macroscopic flow equations are closed by a stochastic equation for the extra stress at the microscopic level. The former are discretised by a 1D-IRBF-CV method while the latter is integrated with Euler explicit or Predictor-Corrector schemes. Modelling is very efficient as it is based on Cartesian grid, while the integrated RBF approach enhances both the stability of the procedure and the accuracy of the solution. The proposed method is demonstrated with the solution of the start-up Couette flow of the Hookean and FENE dumbbell model fluids

    Analysing delays between time course gene expression data and biomarkers

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    Associating time course gene expression data to biomarkers can help to understand disease progression or response to therapy. However, detecting associations between these expression profiles is not a trivial task. Often expression changes occur not simultaneously but delayed in time and common used methods to detect correlation will fail to identify these associations. We have developed an efficient approach, DynOmics, based on Fast Fourier Transform to identify coordinated response dynamics between time course 'omics' experiments and specific biomarkers of interest while taking time shift into account. We applied DynOmics to a rat study investigating molecular response dynamics to different dosages of acetaminophen ('paracetamol'). We show how DynOmics can extract relevant molecule expression profiles that enables a better understanding of the molecular pathways related to acetaminophen toxic dosage and renal damage

    Out of equilibrium quantum field dynamics of an initial thermal state after a change in the external field

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    The effects of the initial temperature in the out of equilibrium quantum field dynamics in the presence of an homogeneous external field are investigated. We consider an initial thermal state of temperature T for a constant external field J. A subsequent sign flip of the external field, J to -J, gives rise to an out of equilibrium nonperturbative quantum field dynamics. The dynamics is studied here for the symmetry broken lambda(Phi^2)^2 scalar N component field theory in the large N limit. We find a dynamical effective potential for the expectation value that helps to understand the dynamics. The dynamics presents two regimes defined by the presence or absence of a temporal trapping close to the metastable equilibrium position of the potential. The two regimes are separated by a critical value of the external field that depends on the initial temperature. The temporal trapping is shorter for larger initial temperatures or larger external fields. Parametric resonances and spinodal instabilities amplify the quantum fluctuations in the field components transverse to the external field. When there is a temporal trapping this is the main mechanism that allows the system to escape from the metastable state for large N. Subsequently backreaction stops the growth of the quantum fluctuations and the system enters a quasiperiodic regime.Comment: LaTeX, 19 pages, 12 .eps figures, improved version to appear in Phys Rev

    A time discretization scheme based on integrated radial basis functions for heat transfer and fluid flow problems

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    This paper reports a new numerical procedure, which is based on integrated radial basis functions (IRBFs) and Cartesian grids, for solving time-dependent differential problems that can be defined on non-rectangular domains. For space discretisations, compact five-point IRBF stencils [Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 235, pp. 302-321, 2013] are utilised. For time discretisations, a two-point IRBF scheme is proposed, where the time derivative is approximated in terms of not only nodal function values at the current and previous time levels but also nodal derivative values at the previous time level. This allows functions other than a linear one to also be captured well on a time step. The use of the RBF width as an additional parameter to enhance the approximation quality with respect to time is also explored. Various kinds of test problems of heat transfer and fluid flows are conducted to demonstrate attractiveness of the present compact approximations

    Equilibrium states of the pressure function for products of matrices

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    Let {Mi}i=1\{M_i\}_{i=1}^\ell be a non-trivial family of d×dd\times d complex matrices, in the sense that for any nNn\in \N, there exists i1...in{1,...,}ni_1... i_n\in \{1,..., \ell\}^n such that Mi1...Min0M_{i_1}... M_{i_n}\neq {\bf 0}. Let P ⁣:(0,)RP \colon (0,\infty)\to \R be the pressure function of {Mi}i=1\{M_i\}_{i=1}^\ell. We show that for each q>0q>0, there are at most dd ergodic qq-equilibrium states of PP, and each of them satisfies certain Gibbs property.Comment: 12 pages. To appear in DCD

    The Vietnamese Version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire:Translation and Cross-cultural Adaptation

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    OBJECTIVE: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) into Vietnamese. METHODS: We followed the guideline by Beaton et al. (2000 & 2007). Stage I: two translators (informed and uninformed) translated the questionnaires. Stage II: the translations were synthesized. Stage III: back translation was performed by two translators fluent in both Vietnamese and English but naïve to the outcome measurement. Stage IV: seven experts reached consensus on the pre-final Vietnamese version (BIPQ-V and BMQ-V). Stage V: field test of the questionnaires on 16 twelve-year-old students and 31 Vietnamese patients. In addition, we determined the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the questionnaires in 34 Vietnamese patients with acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: All experts agreed that there was semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the original and pre-final Vietnamese versions of the BIPQ and BMQ. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the internal consistency were acceptable for the BMQ-V Specific-Necessity (0.64), BMQ-V Specific-Concerns (0.62), and BMQ-V General-Harm (0.60), with the exception of BMQ-V General-Overuse (0.27). Intra-class correlation coefficients of the test-retest reliability was acceptable for the subscales of BMQ-V (range: 0.77-0.86), and BIPQ-V items (range: 0.62-0.85) with the exception of BIPQ-V 1 (0.44, 95% CI -014-0.72) and BIPQ-V 4 (0.57, 95% CI 0.22-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: The Vietnamese version of BIPQ and BMQ are reliable tools to assess illness perceptions and beliefs about medicines of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Psychometric properties of these questionnaires should be tested in different patient populations

    Die Sammlung Simone Collinet. Simone Breton als leidenschaftliche Sammlerin des Surrealismus

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    A series of highly active yttrium phosphasalen initiators for the heteroselective ring-opening polymerization of <i>rac</i>-lactide are reported. The initiators are yttrium alkoxide complexes ligated by iminophosphorane analogues of the popular “salen” ligand, termed “phosphasalens”. A series of novel phosphasalens have been synthesized, with varying substituents on the phenoxide rings and ethylene, propylene, <i>rac</i>-cyclohexylene, <i>R</i>,<i>R</i>-cyclohexylene, phenylene, and 2,2-dimethylpropylene groups linking the iminophosphorane moieties. Changing the substituents on the phosphasalen ligands results in changes to the rates of polymerization (<i>k</i><sub>obs</sub>) and to the PLA heterotacticity (<i>P</i><sub>s</sub> = 0.87). Generally, the initiators have high rates, excellent polymerization control, and a tolerance to low loadings

    A dissipative particle dynamics model for thixotropic materials exhibiting pseudo-yield stress behaviour

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    Many materials (e.g., gels, colloids, concentrated cohesive sediments, etc.) exhibit a stable solid form at rest, and liquify once subjected to an applied stress exceeding a critical value – a yield-stress behaviour. This can be qualitatively explained by the forming and destruction of the fluid microstructure [1], and it may be modelled as a thixotropic and yield stress material. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic model which is able to mimic a thixotropic and yield stress behaviour using a particle-based technique known as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The DPD technique satisfies conservation of mass and momentum and it has been applied successfully for a number of problems involving complex-structure fluids, such as polymer solutions, suspensions of rigid particles, droplets, biological fluids, etc. In this work, an indirect linkage dissipative particle model (ILDP) is proposed based on qualitative microstructural physics, which results in a non-Newtonian fluid with observed yield stress and thixotropic properties. The model comprises of two types, or species, of DPD particles – with only repulsive conservative force between the same species, and with repulsive force at short range and attractive force at long range between different species. Numerical results show that the proposed DPD fluid can represent some observed complex behaviours, such as yield stress and thixotropic effects

    Quantum anti-Zeno effect without wave function reduction

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    We study the measurement-induced enhancement of the spontaneous decay (called quantum anti-Zeno effect) for a two-level subsystem, where measurements are treated as couplings between the excited state and an auxiliary state rather than the von Neumann's wave function reduction. The photon radiated in a fast decay of the atom, from the auxiliary state to the excited state, triggers a quasi-measurement, as opposed to a projection measurement. Our use of the term "quasi-measurement" refers to a "coupling-based measurement". Such frequent quasi-measurements result in an exponential decay of the survival probability of atomic initial state with a photon emission following each quasi-measurement. Our calculations show that the effective decay rate is of the same form as the one based on projection measurements. What is more important, the survival probability of the atomic initial state which is obtained by tracing over all the photon states is equivalent to the survival probability of the atomic initial state with a photon emission following each quasi-measurement to the order under consideration. That is because the contributions from those states with photon number less than the number of quasi-measurements originate from higher-order processes.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure
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