111 research outputs found

    Physics reach of CERN-based SuperBeam neutrino oscillation experiments

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    We compare the physics potential of two representative options for a SuperBeam in Europe, studying the achievable precision at 1\sigma with which the CP violation phase (\delta) could be measured, as well as the mass hierarchy and CP violation discovery potentials. The first setup corresponds to a high energy beam aiming from CERN to a 100 kt liquid argon detector placed at the Pyh\"asalmi mine (2300 km), one of the LAGUNA candidate sites. The second setup corresponds to a much lower energy beam, aiming from CERN to a 500 kt water \v{C}erenkov detector placed at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (730 km). This second option is also studied for a baseline of 650 km, corresponding to the LAGUNA candidate sites of Umbria and the Canfranc underground laboratory. All results are presented also for scenarios with statistics lowered by factors of 2, 4, 8 and 16 to study the possible reductions of flux, detector mass or running time allowed by the large value of \theta_{13} recently measured.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figure

    Gadolinium concentration measurement with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer

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    Because gadolinium (Gd) has the highest thermal neutron capture cross section, resulting in an 8 MeV gamma cascade upon capture, it has been proposed for dissolution in water Cherenkov detectors to achieve efficient neutron tagging capabilities. While metallic Gd is insoluble in water, several compounds are very easy to dissolve. Gadolinium sulfate, Gd2_2(SO4_4)3_3, has been thoroughly tested and proposed as the best candidate. Accurate measurement of its concentration, free of doubt from impurities in water, is crucial. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) is a device that suits this purpose and is widely used to measure the concentration of many elements. In this study, we describe three different approaches to measure Gd sulfate concentrations in water using an AAS: doping samples with potassium and lanthanum, and employing tantalum and tungsten platforms

    Evaluation of gadolinium’s action on water Cherenkov detector systems with EGADS

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, sólo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiera, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAMUsed for both proton decay searches and neutrino physics, large water Cherenkov (WC) detectors have been very successful tools in particle physics. They are notable for their large masses and charged particle detection capabilities. While current WC detectors reconstruct charged particle tracks over a wide energy range, they cannot efficiently detect neutrons. Gadolinium (Gd) has the largest thermal neutron capture cross section of all stable nuclei and produces an 8 MeV gamma cascade that can be detected with high efficiency. Because of the many new physics opportunities that neutron tagging with a Gd salt dissolved in water would open up, a large-scale R&D program called EGADS was established to demonstrate this technique’s feasibility. EGADS features all the components of a WC detector, chiefly a 200-ton stainless steel water tank furnished with 240 photo-detectors, DAQ, and a water system that removes all impurities from water while keeping Gd in solution. In this paper we discuss the milestones towards demonstrating the feasibility of this novel technique, and the features of EGADS in detailThis work was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP21224004, JP26000003, JP24103004 and JP17H06365. Funding support was provided by Kavli IPMU (WPI), the University of Tokyo and the US Department of Energy. We thank the “Consorcio Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc” (Spain) and the Boulby Underground Research Laboratory and in particular the staff of the BUGS facility (UK) for supporting the low-background materials screening work. Some of us have been supported by funds from the European Union H2020-MSCA-RISE-GA872549-SK2HK, the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (grant PGC2018-099388-B-100), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and GridPP, UK, and the European Union’s H2020 -MSCA-RISE-2018 JENNIFER2 grant agreement no. 82207

    Search for Neutrinos from Annihilation of Captured Low-Mass Dark Matter Particles in the Sun by Super-Kamiokande

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    Artículo escrito por muchos autores, sólo se referencian el primero, los autores que firman como Universidad Autónoma de Madrid y el grupo de colaboración en el caso de que aparezca en el artículoSuper-Kamiokande (SK) can search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by detecting neutrinos produced from WIMP annihilations occurring inside the Sun. In this analysis, we include neutrino events with interaction vertices in the detector in addition to upward-going muons produced in the surrounding rock. Compared to the previous result, which used the upward-going muons only, the signal acceptances for light (few-GeV/c2-200-GeV/c2) WIMPs are significantly increased. We fit 3903 days of SK data to search for the contribution of neutrinos from WIMP annihilation in the Sun. We found no significant excess over expected atmospheric-neutrino background and the result is interpreted in terms of upper limits on WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross sections under different assumptions about the annihilation channel. We set the current best limits on the spin-dependent WIMP-proton cross section for WIMP masses below 200 GeV/c2 (at 10 GeV/c2, 1.49×10-39 cm2 for χχ→bb¯ and 1.31×10-40 cm2 for χχ→τ+τ- annihilation channels), also ruling out some fraction of WIMP candidates with spin-independent coupling in the few-GeV/c2 mass rangeThe Super-Kamiokande experiment was built and has been operated with funding from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. National Science Foundatio

    Test of Lorentz invariance with atmospheric neutrinos

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAMA search for neutrino oscillations induced by Lorentz violation has been performed using 4,438 live-days of Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The Lorentz violation is included in addition to standard three-flavor oscillations using the nonperturbative standard model extension (SME), allowing the use of the full range of neutrino path lengths, ranging from 15 to 12,800 km, and energies ranging from 100 MeV to more than 100 TeV in the search. No evidence of Lorentz violation was observed, so limits are set on the renormalizable isotropic SME coefficients in the eμ, μτ, and eτ sectors, improving the existing limits by up to 7 orders of magnitude and setting limits for the first time in the neutrino μτ sector of the SMEWe would like to thank A. Kostelecky for his advice and support and we are grateful to J. S. Diaz for working closely with us to calculate and implement the Lorentz-violating oscillation probabilities. The authors gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Company. Super-K has been built and operated from funds provided by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. This work was partially supported by the Research Foundation of Korea (BK21 and KNRC), the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Science Foundation of China, the European Union FP7 (DS laguna-lbno PN- 284518 and ITN invisibles GA-2011-289442), the National Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada, and the Scinet and Westgrid consortia of Compute Canad

    Search for heavy neutrinos with the T2K near detector ND280

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA

    Demonstration of background rejection using deep convolutional neural networks in the NEXT experiment

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAMConvolutional neural networks (CNNs) are widely used state-of-the-art computer vision tools that are becoming increasingly popular in high-energy physics. In this paper, we attempt to understand the potential of CNNs for event classification in the NEXT experiment, which will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 136Xe. To do so, we demonstrate the usage of CNNs for the identification of electron-positron pair production events, which exhibit a topology similar to that of a neutrinoless double-beta decay event. These events were produced in the NEXT-White high-pressure xenon TPC using 2.6 MeV gamma rays from a 228Th calibration source. We train a network on Monte Carlo-simulated events and show that, by applying on-the-fly data augmentation, the network can be made robust against differences between simulation and data. The use of CNNs offers significant improvement in signal efficiency and background rejection when compared to previous non-CNN-based analyse

    Search for light sterile neutrinos with the T2K far detector Super-Kamiokande at a baseline of 295 km

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA

    T2K measurements of muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance using 3.13 × 1021 protons on target

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAMWe report measurements by the T2K experiment of the parameters θ23 and Δm322, which govern the disappearance of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the three-flavor PMNS neutrino oscillation model at T2K's neutrino energy and propagation distance. Utilizing the ability of the experiment to run with either a mainly neutrino or a mainly antineutrino beam, muon-like events from each beam mode are used to measure these parameters separately for neutrino and antineutrino oscillations. Data taken from 1.49×1021 protons on target (POT) in neutrino mode and 1.64 × 1021 POT in antineutrino mode are used. The best-fit values obtained by T2K were sin2(θ23) = 0.51-0.07+0.06(0.43-0.05+0.21) and Δm322 = 2.47-0.09+0.08(2.50-0.13+0.18) × 10-3 eV2/c4 for neutrinos (antineutrinos). No significant differences between the values of the parameters describing the disappearance of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos were observed. An analysis using an effective two-flavor neutrino oscillation model where the sine of the mixing angle is allowed to take nonphysical values larger than 1 is also performed to check the consistency of our data with the three-flavor model. Our data were found to be consistent with a physical value for the mixing angl

    Radio frequency and DC high voltage breakdown of high pressure helium, argon, and xenon

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, los autores pertenecientes a la UAM y el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si lo hubiereThis is the Accepted Manuscript version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Instrumentation. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at 10.1088/1748-0221/15/04/P04022Motivated by the possibility of guiding daughter ions from double beta decay events to single-ion sensors for barium tagging, the NEXT collaboration is developing a program of R&D to test radio frequency (RF) carpets for ion transport in high pressure xenon gas. This would require carpet functionality in regimes at higher pressures than have been previously reported, implying correspondingly larger electrode voltages than in existing systems. This mode of operation appears plausible for contemporary RF-carpet geometries due to the higher predicted breakdown strength of high pressure xenon relative to low pressure helium, the working medium in most existing RF carpet devices. In this paper we present the first measurements of the high voltage dielectric strength of xenon gas at high pressure and at the relevant RF frequencies for ion transport (in the 10 MHz range), as well as new DC and RF measurements of the dielectric strengths of high pressure argon and helium gases at small gap sizes. We find breakdown voltages that are compatible with stable RF carpet operation given the gas, pressure, voltage, materials and geometry of interes
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