75 research outputs found

    Water quality and planktonic microbial assemblages of isolated wetlands in an agricultural landscape

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    Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Wetlands 31 (2011): 885-894, doi:10.1007/s13157-011-0203-6.Wetlands provide ecosystem services including flood protection, water quality enhancement, food chain support, carbon sequestration, and support regional biodiversity. Wetlands occur in human-altered landscapes, and the ongoing ability of these wetlands to provide ecosystem services is lacking. Additionally, the apparent lack of connection of some wetlands, termed geographically isolated, to permanent waters has resulted in little regulatory recognition. We examined the influence of intensive agriculture on water quality and planktonic microbial assemblages of intermittently inundated wetlands. We sampled 10 reference and 10 agriculturally altered wetlands in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Georgia. Water quality measures included pH, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate), and filterable solids (dry mass and ash-free dry mass). We measured abundance and relative size distribution of the planktonic microbial assemblage (< 45 μm) using flow cytometry. Water quality in agricultural wetlands was characterized by elevated nutrients, pH, and suspended solids. Autotrophic microbial cells were largely absent from both wetland types. Heterotrophic microbial abundance was influenced by nutrients and suspended matter concentration. Agriculture caused changes in microbial assemblages forming the base of wetland food webs. Yet, these wetlands potentially support important ecological services in a highly altered landscape.Funding was provided by the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center.2012-07-2

    Young people's views on the potential use of telemedicine consultations for sexual health: results of a national survey

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Young people are disproportionately affected by sexually transmissible infections in Australia but face barriers to accessing sexual health services, including concerns over confidentiality and, for some, geographic remoteness. A possible innovation to increase access to services is the use of telemedicine.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Young people's (aged 16-24) pre-use views on telephone and webcam consultations for sexual health were investigated through a widely-advertised national online survey in Australia. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, or t-tests were used to assess associations. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the association between the three-level outcome variable (first preference in person, telephone or webcam, and demographic and behavioural variables); odds ratios and 95%CI were calculated using in person as the reference category. Free text responses were analysed thematically.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A total of 662 people completed the questionnaire. Overall, 85% of the sample indicated they would be willing to have an in-person consultation with a doctor, 63% a telephone consultation, and 29% a webcam consultation. Men, respondents with same-sex partners, and respondents reporting three or more partners in the previous year were more willing to have a webcam consultation. Imagining they lived 20 minutes from a doctor, 83% of respondents reported that their first preference would be an in-person consultation with a doctor; if imagining they lived two hours from a doctor, 51% preferred a telephone consultation. The main objections to webcam consultations in the free text responses were privacy and security concerns relating to the possibility of the webcam consultation being recorded, saved, and potentially searchable and retrievable online.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study is the first we are aware of that seeks the views of young people on telemedicine and access to sexual health services. Although only 29% of respondents were willing to have a webcam consultation, such a service may benefit youth who may not otherwise access a sexual health service. The acceptability of webcam consultations may be increased if medical clinics provide clear and accessible privacy policies ensuring that consultations will not be recorded or saved.</p

    Managing formalization to increase global team effectiveness and meaningfulness of work in multinational organizations

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    Global teams may help to integrate across locations, and yet, with formalized rules and procedures, responsiveness to those locations’ effectiveness, and the team members’ experiences of work as meaningful may suffer. We employ a mixed-methods approach to understand how the level and content of formalization can be managed to resolve these tensions in multinationals. In a sample of global teams from a large mining and resources organization operating across 44 countries, interviews, observations, and a quantitative 2-wave survey revealed a great deal of variability between teams in how formalization processes were enacted. Only those formalization processes that promoted knowledge sharing were instrumental in improving team effectiveness. Implementing rules and procedures in the set-up of the teams and projects, rather than during interactions, and utilizing protocols to help establish the global team as a source of identity increased this knowledge sharing. Finally, we found members’ personal need for structure moderated the effect of team formalization on how meaningful individuals found their work within the team. These findings have significant implications for theory and practice in multinational organizations

    How authentic leadership influences team performance:the mediating role of team reflexivity

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    This study examines how authentic leadership influences team performance via the mediating mechanism of team reflexivity. Adopting a self-regulatory perspective, we propose that authentic leadership will predict the specific team regulatory process of reflexivity, which in turn will be associated with two outcomes of team performance; effectiveness and productivity. Using survey data from 53 teams in three organizations in the United Kingdom and Greece and controlling for collective trust, we found support for our stated hypotheses with the results indicating a significant fully mediated relationship. As predicted the self-regulatory behaviors inherent in the process of authentic leadership served to collectively shape team behavior, manifesting in the process of team reflexivity, which, in turn, positively predicted team performance. We conclude with a discussion of how this study extends theoretical understanding of authentic leadership in relation to teamwork and delineate several practical implications for leaders and organizations

    Societal-level versus individual-level predictions of ethical behavior: a 48-society study of collectivism and individualism

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    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed