402 research outputs found

    Differential Muon Tomography to Continuously Monitor Changes in the Composition of Subsurface Fluids

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    Muon tomography has been used to seek hidden chambers in Egyptian pyramids and image subsurface features in volcanoes. It seemed likely that it could be used to image injected, supercritical carbon dioxide as it is emplaced in porous geological structures being used for carbon sequestration, and also to check on subsequent leakage. It should work equally well in any other application where there are two fluids of different densities, such as water and oil, or carbon dioxide and heavy oil in oil reservoirs. Continuous monitoring of movement of oil and/or flood fluid during enhanced oil recovery activities for managing injection is important for economic reasons. Checking on leakage for geological carbon storage is essential both for safety and for economic purposes. Current technology (for example, repeat 3D seismic surveys) is expensive and episodic. Muons are generated by high- energy cosmic rays resulting from supernova explosions, and interact with gas molecules in the atmosphere. This innovation has produced a theoretical model of muon attenuation in the thickness of rock above and within a typical sandstone reservoir at a depth of between 1.00 and 1.25 km. Because this first simulation was focused on carbon sequestration, the innovators chose depths sufficient for the pressure there to ensure that the carbon dioxide would be supercritical. This innovation demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using the natural cosmic-ray muon flux to generate continuous tomographic images of carbon dioxide in a storage site. The muon flux is attenuated to an extent dependent on, amongst other things, the density of the materials through which it passes. The density of supercritical carbon dioxide is only three quarters that of the brine in the reservoir that it displaces. The first realistic simulations indicate that changes as small as 0.4% in the storage site bulk density could be detected (equivalent to 7% of the porosity, in this specific case). The initial muon flux is effectively constant at the surface of the Earth. Sensitivity of the method would be decreased with increasing depth. However, sensitivity can be improved by emplacing a greater array of particle detectors at the base of the reservoir

    Can muon-induced backgrounds explain the DAMA data?

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    We present an accurate simulation of the muon-induced background in the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. Muon sampling underground has been performed using the MUSIC/MUSUN codes and subsequent interactions in the rock around the DAMA/LIBRA detector cavern and the experimental setup including shielding, have been simulated with GEANT4.9.6. In total we simulate the equivalent of 20 years of muon data. We have calculated the total muon-induced neutron flux in the DAMA/LIBRA detector cavern as Φμn = 1.0 ×10-9 cm-2s-1, which is consistent with other simulations. After selecting events which satisfy the DAMA/LIBRA signal criteria, our simulation predicts 3.49 ×10-5 cpd/kg/keV which accounts for less than 0.3% of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation amplitude. We conclude from our work that muon-induced backgrounds are unable to contribute to the observed signal modulation

    Muon Simulations for Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND and CHOOZ

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    Muon backgrounds at Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND and CHOOZ are calculated using MUSIC. A modified version of the Gaisser sea level muon distribution and a well-tested Monte Carlo integration method are introduced. Average muon energy, flux and rate are tabulated. Plots of average energy and angular distributions are given. Implications on muon tracker design for future experiments are discussed.Comment: Revtex4 33 pages, 16 figures and 4 table

    Phenological shifts of abiotic events, producers and consumers across a continent

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    Ongoing climate change can shift organism phenology in ways that vary depending on species, habitats and climate factors studied. To probe for large-scale patterns in associated phenological change, we use 70,709 observations from six decades of systematic monitoring across the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Among 110 phenological events related to plants, birds, insects, amphibians and fungi, we find a mosaic of change, defying simple predictions of earlier springs, later autumns and stronger changes at higher latitudes and elevations. Site mean temperature emerged as a strong predictor of local phenology, but the magnitude and direction of change varied with trophic level and the relative timing of an event. Beyond temperature-associated variation, we uncover high variation among both sites and years, with some sites being characterized by disproportionately long seasons and others by short ones. Our findings emphasize concerns regarding ecosystem integrity and highlight the difficulty of predicting climate change outcomes. The authors use systematic monitoring across the former USSR to investigate phenological changes across taxa. The long-term mean temperature of a site emerged as a strong predictor of phenological change, with further imprints of trophic level, event timing, site, year and biotic interactions.Peer reviewe

    Study of the rare B-s(0) and B-0 decays into the pi(+) pi(-) mu(+) mu(-) final state

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    A search for the rare decays Bs0π+πμ+μB_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- and B0π+πμ+μB^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- is performed in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb1^{-1} collected by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Decay candidates with pion pairs that have invariant mass in the range 0.5-1.3 GeV/c2c^2 and with muon pairs that do not originate from a resonance are considered. The first observation of the decay Bs0π+πμ+μB_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- and the first evidence of the decay B0π+πμ+μB^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- are obtained and the branching fractions are measured to be B(Bs0π+πμ+μ)=(8.6±1.5(stat)±0.7(syst)±0.7(norm))×108\mathcal{B}(B_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^-)=(8.6\pm 1.5\,({\rm stat}) \pm 0.7\,({\rm syst})\pm 0.7\,({\rm norm}))\times 10^{-8} and B(B0π+πμ+μ)=(2.11±0.51(stat)±0.15(syst)±0.16(norm))×108\mathcal{B}(B^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^-)=(2.11\pm 0.51\,({\rm stat}) \pm 0.15\,({\rm syst})\pm 0.16\,({\rm norm}) )\times 10^{-8}, where the third uncertainty is due to the branching fraction of the decay B0J/ψ(μ+μ)K(890)0(K+π)B^0\to J/\psi(\to \mu^+\mu^-)K^*(890)^0(\to K^+\pi^-), used as a normalisation.A search for the rare decays Bs0→π+π−μ+μ− and B0→π+π−μ+μ− is performed in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1 collected by the LHCb detector in proton–proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV . Decay candidates with pion pairs that have invariant mass in the range 0.5–1.3 GeV/c2 and with muon pairs that do not originate from a resonance are considered. The first observation of the decay Bs0→π+π−μ+μ− and the first evidence of the decay B0→π+π−μ+μ− are obtained and the branching fractions, restricted to the dipion-mass range considered, are measured to be B(Bs0→π+π−μ+μ−)=(8.6±1.5 (stat)±0.7 (syst)±0.7(norm))×10−8 and B(B0→π+π−μ+μ−)=(2.11±0.51(stat)±0.15(syst)±0.16(norm))×10−8 , where the third uncertainty is due to the branching fraction of the decay B0→J/ψ(→μ+μ−)K⁎(892)0(→K+π−) , used as a normalisation.A search for the rare decays Bs0→π+π−μ+μ− and B0→π+π−μ+μ− is performed in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1 collected by the LHCb detector in proton–proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV . Decay candidates with pion pairs that have invariant mass in the range 0.5–1.3 GeV/c2 and with muon pairs that do not originate from a resonance are considered. The first observation of the decay Bs0→π+π−μ+μ− and the first evidence of the decay B0→π+π−μ+μ− are obtained and the branching fractions, restricted to the dipion-mass range considered, are measured to be B(Bs0→π+π−μ+μ−)=(8.6±1.5 (stat)±0.7 (syst)±0.7(norm))×10−8 and B(B0→π+π−μ+μ−)=(2.11±0.51(stat)±0.15(syst)±0.16(norm))×10−8 , where the third uncertainty is due to the branching fraction of the decay B0→J/ψ(→μ+μ−)K⁎(892)0(→K+π−) , used as a normalisation.A search for the rare decays Bs0π+πμ+μB_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- and B0π+πμ+μB^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- is performed in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb1^{-1} collected by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Decay candidates with pion pairs that have invariant mass in the range 0.5-1.3 GeV/c2c^2 and with muon pairs that do not originate from a resonance are considered. The first observation of the decay Bs0π+πμ+μB_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- and the first evidence of the decay B0π+πμ+μB^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^- are obtained and the branching fractions, restricted to the dipion-mass range considered, are measured to be B(Bs0π+πμ+μ)=(8.6±1.5(stat)±0.7(syst)±0.7(norm))×108\mathcal{B}(B_s^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^-)=(8.6\pm 1.5\,({\rm stat}) \pm 0.7\,({\rm syst})\pm 0.7\,({\rm norm}))\times 10^{-8} and B(B0π+πμ+μ)=(2.11±0.51(stat)±0.15(syst)±0.16(norm))×108\mathcal{B}(B^0 \to \pi^+\pi^-\mu^+\mu^-)=(2.11\pm 0.51\,({\rm stat}) \pm 0.15\,({\rm syst})\pm 0.16\,({\rm norm}) )\times 10^{-8}, where the third uncertainty is due to the branching fraction of the decay B0J/ψ(μ+μ)K(890)0(K+π)B^0\to J/\psi(\to \mu^+\mu^-)K^*(890)^0(\to K^+\pi^-), used as a normalisation

    Measurement of Upsilon production in collisions at root s=2.76 TeV

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    The production of Υ(1S)\Upsilon(1S), Υ(2S)\Upsilon(2S) and Υ(3S)\Upsilon(3S) mesons decaying into the dimuon final state is studied with the LHCb detector using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.3 pb1pb^{-1} collected in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s=2.76\sqrt{s}=2.76 TeV. The differential production cross-sections times dimuon branching fractions are measured as functions of the Υ\Upsilon transverse momentum and rapidity, over the ranges $p_{\rm T} Upsilon(1S) X) x B(Upsilon(1S) -> mu+mu-) = 1.111 +/- 0.043 +/- 0.044 nb, sigma(pp -> Upsilon(2S) X) x B(Upsilon(2S) -> mu+mu-) = 0.264 +/- 0.023 +/- 0.011 nb, sigma(pp -> Upsilon(3S) X) x B(Upsilon(3S) -> mu+mu-) = 0.159 +/- 0.020 +/- 0.007 nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic

    Search for CP violation using T-odd correlations in D-0 -> K+K-pi(+)pi(-) decays

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    A search for CPCP violation using TT-odd correlations is performed using the four-body D0K+Kπ+πD^0 \to K^+K^-\pi^+\pi^- decay, selected from semileptonic BB decays. The data sample corresponds to integrated luminosities of 1.0fb11.0\,\text{fb}^{-1} and 2.0fb12.0\,\text{fb}^{-1} recorded at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. The CPCP-violating asymmetry aCPT-odda_{CP}^{T\text{-odd}} is measured to be (0.18±0.29(stat)±0.04(syst))%(0.18\pm 0.29\text{(stat)}\pm 0.04\text{(syst)})\%. Searches for CPCP violation in different regions of phase space of the four-body decay, and as a function of the D0D^0 decay time, are also presented. No significant deviation from the CPCP conservation hypothesis is found
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