263 research outputs found

    Environmental Standards and Their Linkage to Support Instruments of the EU Common Agricultural Policy

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    Agricultural support payments in the EU are increasingly connected to compliance with environmental standards, through cross-compliance and "Good Farming Practice"-conditions. In this paper, this relatively new approach is analysed regarding targeting, compatibility with legal procedures, and effects on income and production. Compliance with standards is reinforced by more systematic controls and reductions of support payments. As farms are affected by such sanctions to a different extent, risk-analysis for selection of farms to be controlled is a crucial element of implementation. The real environmental impacts have to be considered, especially if indirect control indicators are applied. Furthermore, technical assistance and audits have to be promoted for the implementation of environmental standards.Good Farming Practice, cross-compliance, environmental standards, Agricultural and Food Policy, K32, Q28,

    Evaluering af 10 tr├Žngselspletprojekter: Resultater og anbefalinger

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    Vejdirektoratet har efter anl├Žg af en r├Žkke mindre projekter p├ą statsvejnettet med det form├ąl at forbedre fremkommeligheden i kryds gennemf├Şrt evalueringer af disse p├ą en ensartet og systematisk m├ąde via et egenudviklet evalueringskoncept. Form├ąlet er, at unders├Şge om projekterne virker efter hensigten og at sikre vej- og trafikfaglig l├Žring, som kan bruges i den fremadrettede vejplanl├Žgning

    Landscape Strategy-Making and Collaboration:The Hills of Northern Mors, Denmark; A Case of Changing Focus and Scale

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    This paper focuses on a three-year rural landscape strategy-making process, which was driven by a Danish municipality and involved a large number of stakeholders. The project was part of an action research program aimed at developing new approaches to collaborative landscape planning. Gaining experiences with such approaches was part of this aim. During the course of the project, the focus and scale of the strategy changed significantly. The process developed in interesting ways in respect to three dimensions of collaborative landscape planning: collaboration, scale, and public goods. After a brief review of the three dimensions and their links to landscape planning, the case story is unfolded in three sections: (1) The planning process, (2) the process outcome (the strategy), and (3) the aftermath in terms of critical reflections from participating planners and local stakeholders. The process and outcome of the landscape strategy-making process is discussed in the context of collaboration, scale, and public goods, including a brief outline of the lessons learned

    Bacterial membrane activity of ╬▒-peptide/╬▓-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Characterization and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) requires that their mode of action is determined. The interaction of membrane-active peptides with their target is often established using model membranes, however, the actual permeabilization of live bacterial cells and subsequent killing is usually not tested. In this report, six ╬▒-peptide/╬▓-peptoid chimeras were examined for the effect of amino acid/peptoid substitutions and chain length on the membrane perturbation and subsequent killing of food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>All six AMP analogues inhibited growth of twelve food-borne and clinical bacterial strains including Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing <it>Escherichia coli</it>. In general, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were similar, ranging from 1 to 5 ╬╝M. The type of cationic amino acid only had a minor effect on MIC values, whereas chain length had a profound influence on activity. All chimeras were less active against <it>Serratia marcescens </it>(MICs above 46 ╬╝M). The chimeras were bactericidal and induced leakage of ATP from <it>Staphylococcus aureus </it>and <it>S. marcescens </it>with similar time of onset and reduction in the number of viable cells. EDTA pre-treatment of <it>S. marcescens </it>and <it>E. coli </it>followed by treatment with chimeras resulted in pronounced killing indicating that disintegration of the Gram-negative outer membrane eliminated innate differences in susceptibility. Chimera chain length did not influence the degree of ATP leakage, but the amount of intracellular ATP remaining in the cell after treatment was influenced by chimera length with the longest analogue causing complete depletion of intracellular ATP. Hence some chimeras caused a complete disruption of the membrane, and this was parallel by the largest reduction in number of viable bacteria.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We found that chain length but not type of cationic amino acid influenced the antibacterial activity of a series of synthetic ╬▒-peptide/╬▓-peptoid chimeras. The synthetic chimeras exert their killing effect by permeabilization of the bacterial cell envelope, and the outer membrane may act as a barrier in Gram-negative bacteria. The tolerance of <it>S. marcescens </it>to chimeras may be due to differences in the composition of the lipopolysaccharide layer also responsible for its resistance to polymyxin B.</p
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