6,673 research outputs found

    X-Ray sum frequency generation; direct imaging of ultrafast electron dynamics

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    X-ray diffraction from molecules in the ground state produces an image of their charge density, and time-resolved X-ray diffraction can thus monitor the motion of the nuclei. However, the density change of excited valence electrons upon optical excitation can barely be monitored with regular diffraction techniques due to the overwhelming background contribution of the core electrons. We present a nonlinear X-ray technique made possible by novel free electron laser sources, which provides a spatial electron density image of valence electron excitations. The technique, sum frequency generation carried out with a visible pump and a broadband X-ray diffraction pulse, yields snapshots of the transition charge densities, which represent the electron density variations upon optical excitation. The technique is illustrated by ab initio simulations of transition charge density imaging for the optically induced electronic dynamics in a donor/acceptor substituted stilbene

    Monitoring Nonadiabatic Electron-Nuclear Dynamics in Molecules by Attosecond Streaking of Photoelectrons

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    Streaking of photoelectrons has long been used for the temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. When the time-resolved photoelectrons originate from a coherent superposition of electronic states, they carry an additional phase information, which can be retrieved by the streaking technique. In this contribution we extend the streaking formalism to include coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules as well as initial coherences and demonstrate how it offers a novel tool to monitor non-adiabatic dynamics as it occurs in the vicinity of conical intersections and avoided crossings. Streaking can enhance the time resolution and provide direct signatures of electronic coherences, which affect many primary photochemical and biological events

    Cell Cycle Deregulation in Ewing's Sarcoma Pathogenesis

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    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive pediatric tumor of bone that usually contains the characteristic chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). This translocation encodes the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/FLI, which acts as an aberrant transcription factor to deregulate target genes necessary for oncogenesis. One key feature of oncogenic transformation is dysregulation of cell cycle control. It is therefore likely that EWS/FLI and other cooperating mutations in Ewing's sarcoma modulate the cell cycle to facilitate tumorigenesis. This paper will summarize current published data associated with deregulation of the cell cycle in Ewing's sarcoma and highlight important questions that remain to be answered

    Influence of surgical resection no plasma Endoglin (CD105) level in non-small cell lung cancer patients

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    Background and Aim: Endoglin is a proliferation-associated antigen on endothelial cells and essential for angiogenesis. Soluble endoglin (s‑endoglin), formed by proteolytic cleavage of ectodomain of membrane receptor could be an indicator of tumor‑activated endothelium. The aim of present study was to analyze changes of s‑endoglin level in plasma of lung cancer patients following surgical resection and to estimate the correlation of s‑endoglin with other soluble receptors, sTie2 and sVEGF R1. Patients and Methods: The study group consisted of 37 patients with stage I of non-small cell lung cancer. Plasma concentrations of s‑endoglin, sTie2 and sVEGF R1 were evaluated by ELISA, three times: before surgical resection and on postoperative day 7 and 30. Results: The median of s‑endoglin concentration decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 when compared with preoperative level and next increased on 30th day and it was comparable with that before surgery. s-Endoglin correlated with another soluble receptors, with sTie2 both before surgery (r=0.44) and on postoperative day 7 (r=0.52) and on 30th day (r=0.58), with sVEGF R1 — only on postoperative day 7 (r=0.75). Conclusion: The increased level of serum endoglin in lung cancer patients compared to controls and its changes after surgical treatment suggest potential application of soluble form of endoglin as potential tumor marker

    Optical pulse-shaping for internal cooling of molecules

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    We consider the use of pulse-shaped broadband femtosecond lasers to optically cool rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules. Since this approach relies on cooling rotational and vibrational quanta by exciting an electronic transition, it is most easily applicable to molecules with similar ground and excited potential energy surfaces, such that the vibrational state is usually unchanged during electronic relaxation. Compared with schemes that cool rotations by exciting vibrations, this approach achieves internal cooling on the orders-of- magnitude faster electronic decay timescale and is potentially applicable to apolar molecules. For AlH+, a candidate species, a rate-equation simulation indicates that rovibrational equilibrium should be achievable in 8 \mu s. In addition, we report laboratory demonstration of optical pulse shaping with sufficient resolution and power for rotational cooling of AlH+

    Cooperation, collective action, and the archeology of large-scale societies

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    Archeologists investigating the emergence of large-scale societies in the past have renewed interest in examining the dynamics of cooperation as a means of understanding societal change and organizational variability within human groups over time. Unlike earlier approaches to these issues, which used models designated voluntaristic or managerial, contemporary research articulates more explicitly with frameworks for cooperation and collective action used in other fields, thereby facilitating empirical testing through better definition of the costs, benefits, and social mechanisms associated with success or failure in coordinated group action. Current scholarship is nevertheless bifurcated along lines of epistemology and scale, which is understandable but problematic for forging a broader, more transdisciplinary field of cooperation studies. Here, we point to some areas of potential overlap by reviewing archeological research that places the dynamics of social cooperation and competition in the foreground of the emergence of large-scale societies, which we define as those having larger populations, greater concentrations of political power, and higher degrees of social inequality. We focus on key issues involving the communal-resource management of subsistence and other economic goods, as well as the revenue flows that undergird political institutions. Drawing on archeological cases from across the globe, with greater detail from our area of expertise in Mesoamerica, we offer suggestions for strengthening analytical methods and generating more transdisciplinary research programs that address human societies across scalar and temporal spectra

    Averages of b-hadron Properties at the End of 2005

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    This article reports world averages for measurements on b-hadron properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using the available results as of at the end of 2005. In the averaging, the input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and all known correlations are taken into account. The averages include lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays, branching fractions of B meson decays to final states with open charm, charmonium and no charm, and measurements related to CP asymmetries