22,942 research outputs found

    Non-Abelian Monopoles, Vortices and Confinement

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    Three closely related issues will be discussed. Magnetic quarks having non-Abelian charges have been found recently to appear as the dominant infrared degrees of freedom in some vacua of softly broken N=2 supersymmetric QCD with SU(n_c) gauge group. Their condensation upon N=1 perturbation causes confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking. We argue that these magnetic quarks can be naturally related to the semiclassical non-Abelian monopoles of the type first discussed by Goddard, Nuyts, Olive and E. Weinberg. We discuss also general properties of non-Abelian vortices and discuss their relevance to the confinement in QCD. Finally, calculation by Douglas and Shenker of the tension ratios for vortices of different N-alities in the softly broken N=2 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, is carried to the second order in the adjoint multiplet mass. A correction to the ratios violating the sine formula is found, showing that the latter is not a universal quantity.Comment: Latex 19 pages, 3 figures, Talk at Continuous Advance in QCD (Arkady Fest), Minneapolis, May 200

    Non-Abelian Superconductors - Lessons from Supersymmetric Gauge Theories for QCD

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    Much about the confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking in QCD might be learned from models with supersymmetry. In particular, models based on N=2 supersymmetric theories with gauge groups SU(N), SO(N) and USp(2N)USp(2 N) and with various number of flavors, give deep dynamical hints about these phenomena. For instance, the BPS non-abelian monopoles can become the dominant degrees of freedom in the infrared due to quantum effects. Upon condensation (which can be triggered in these class of models by perturbing them with an adjoint scalar mass) they induce confinement with calculable pattern of dynamical symmetry breaking. This may occur either in a weakly interacting regime or in a strongly coupled regime (in the latter, often the low-energy degrees of freedom contain relatively non-local monopoles and dyons simultaneously and the system is near a nontrivial fixed-point). Also, the existence of sytems with BPS {\it non-abelian vortices} has been shown recently. These results point toward the idea that the ground state of QCD is a sort of dual superconductor of non-abelian variety.Comment: Latex file, 11 eps figures, Talk at the "Confinement 2003", Riken, Tokyo, July 200

    Quantum Nonabelian Monopoles

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    We discuss quantum mechanical and topological aspects of nonabelian monopoles. Related recent results on nonabelian vortices are also mentioned.Comment: Latex 13 pages, 2 figures, Talk at "Continuous Advances in QCD 2004", Univ. Minnesota, May 200

    Appropriate Methodology of Statistical Tests According to Prior Probability and Required Objectivity

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    In contrast to its common definition and calculation, interpretation of p-values diverges among statisticians. Since p-value is the basis of various methodologies, this divergence has led to a variety of test methodologies and evaluations of test results. This chaotic situation has complicated the application of tests and decision processes. Here, the origin of the divergence is found in the prior probability of the test. Effects of difference in Pr(H0 = true) on the character of p-values are investigated by comparing real microarray data and its artificial imitations as subjects of Student's t-tests. Also, the importance of the prior probability is discussed in terms of the applicability of Bayesian approaches. Suitable methodology is found in accordance with the prior probability and purpose of the test.Comment: 16 pages, 3 figures, and 1 tabl

    Who Confines Quarks? - On Non-Abelian Monopoles and Dynamics of Confinement

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    The role non-Abelian magnetic monopoles play in the dynamics of confinement is discussed by examining carefully a class of supersymmetric gauge theories as theoretical laboratories. In particular, in the so-called rr-vacua of softly broken N=2{N}=2 supersymmmetric SU(nc)SU(n_c) QCD, the Goddard-Olive-Nuyts-Weinberg monopoles appear as the dominant low-energy effective degrees of freedom. Even more interesting is the physics of confining vacua which are deformations of nontrivial superconformal theories. We argue that in such cases, occurring in the r=nf2r= {n_f \over 2} vacua of SU(nc)SU(n_c) theories or in all of confining vacua of USp(2nc)USp(2n_c) or SO(nf)SO(n_f) theories with massless flavors, a new mechanism of confinement involving strongly interacting non-Abelian magnetic monopoles is at work.Comment: Latex 19 pages, 8 eps figures, uses ws-procs9x6.cls, Talk at SCGT (Nagoya, Nov. 2002) and at Institute of Physics Meeting (London, Feb. 2003

    Confinement via strongly-coupled non-Abelian monopoles

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    New types of confinement phase emerge as singular SCFT's appearing as infrared-fixed-points of N=2 supersymmetric QCD (SQCD) are perturbed by an N=1 adjoint mass term. Based on a recent remarkable work on infrared-fixed-point SCFT of highest criticalities by Gaiotto, Seiberg and Tachikawa, we discuss physics of certain confining systems in SU(N), USp(2N) or SO(N) gauge theories. These show features different from a straightforward dual superconductivity picture of confinement a' la 't Hooft and Mandelstam, which might suggest a new venue in exploring the quark confinement mechanism in the real-world QCD.Comment: Latex 17 pages. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1301.042
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