3,142 research outputs found

    Multiorbital Spin Susceptibility in a Magnetically Ordered State - Orbital versus Excitonic Spin Density Wave Scenario

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    We present a general theory of multiorbital spin waves in magnetically ordered metallic systems. Motivated by the itinerant magnetism of iron-based superconductors, we compare the magnetic excitations for two different scenarios: when the magnetic order either sets in on the on-site orbital level; or when it appears as an electron-hole pairing between different bands of electron and hole character. As an example we treat the two-orbital model for iron-based superconductors. For small magnetic moments the spin excitations look similar in both scenarios. Going to larger interactions and larger magnetic moments, the difference between both scenarios becomes striking. While in the excitonic scenario the spin waves form a closed structure over the entire Brillouin zone and the particle-hole continuum is gapped, the spin excitations in the orbital scenario can be treated as spin waves only in a close vicinity to the ordering momenta. The origin of this is a gapless electronic structure with Dirac cones which is a source of large damping. We analyze our results in connection with recent neutron scattering measurements and show that certain features of the orbital scenario with multiple order parameters can be observed experimentally.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figure

    Spin excitations in layered antiferromagnetic metals and superconductors

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    The proximity of antiferromagnetic order in high-temperature superconducting materials is considered a possible clue to the electronic excitations which form superconducting pairs. Here we study the transverse and longitudinal spin excitation spectrum in a one-band model in the pure spin density wave (SDW) state and in the coexistence state of SDW and the superconductivity. We start from a Stoner insulator and study the evolution of the spectrum with doping, including distinct situations with only hole pockets, with only electron pockets and with pockets of both types. In addition to the usual spin-wave modes, in the partially gapped cases we find significant weight of low-energy particle-hole excitations. We discuss the implications of our findings for neutron scattering experiments and for theories of Cooper-pairing in the metallic SDW state.Comment: (14 pages, 6 figures

    Quasiparticle interference in iron-based superconductors

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    We systematically calculate quasiparticle interference (QPI) signatures for the whole phase diagram of iron-based superconductors. Impurities inherent in the sample together with ordered phases lead to distinct features in the QPI images that are believed to be measured in spectroscopic imaging-scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM). In the spin-density wave phase the rotational symmetry of the electronic structure is broken, signatures of which are also seen in the coexistence regime with both superconducting and magnetic order. In the superconducting regime we show how the different scattering behavior for magnetic and non-magnetic impurities allows to verify the s+s^{+-} symmetry of the order parameter. The effect of possible gap minima or nodes is discussed.Comment: 19 pages, 7 figure

    Dynamics of Fractionalization in Quantum Spin Liquids

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    We present the theory of dynamical spin-response for the Kitaev honeycomb model, obtaining exact results for the structure factor (SF) in gapped and gapless, Abelian and non-Abelian quantum spin-liquid (QSL) phases. We also describe the advances in methodology necessary to compute these results. The structure factor shows signatures of spin-fractionalization into emergent quasiparticles -- Majorana fermions and fluxes of Z2Z_2 gauge field. In addition to a broad continuum from spin-fractionalization, we find sharp (δ\delta-function) features in the response. These arise in two distinct ways: from excited states containing only (static) fluxes and no (mobile) fermions; and from excited states in which fermions are bound to fluxes. The SF is markedly different in Abelian and non-Abelian QSLs, and bound fermion-flux composites appear only in the non-Abelian phase.Comment: 21 pages, 14 figure

    Dynamics of a two-dimensional quantum spin liquid: signatures of emergent Majorana fermions and fluxes

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    Topological states of matter present a wide variety of striking new phenomena. Prominent among these is the fractionalisation of electrons into unusual particles: Majorana fermions [1], Laughlin quasiparticles [2] or magnetic monopoles [3]. Their detection, however, is fundamentally complicated by the lack of any local order, such as, for example, the magnetisation in a ferromagnet. While there are now several instances of candidate topological spin liquids [4], their identification remains challenging [5]. Here, we provide a complete and exact theoretical study of the dynamical structure factor of a two-dimensional quantum spin liquid in gapless and gapped phases. We show that there are direct signatures - qualitative and quantitative - of the Majorana fermions and gauge fluxes emerging in Kitaev's honeycomb model. These include counterintuitive manifestations of quantum number fractionalisation, such as a neutron scattering response with a gap even in the presence of gapless excitations, and a sharp component despite the fractionalisation of electron spin. Our analysis identifies new varieties of the venerable X-ray edge problem and explores connections to the physics of quantum quenches.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Raman scattering in correlated thin films as a probe of chargeless surface states

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    Several powerful techniques exist to detect topologically protected surface states of weakly-interacting electronic systems. In contrast, surface modes of strongly interacting systems which do not carry electric charge are much harder to detect. We propose resonant light scattering as a means of probing the chargeless surface modes of interacting quantum spin systems, and illustrate its efficacy by a concrete calculation for the 3D hyperhoneycomb Kitaev quantum spin liquid phase. We show that resonant scattering is required to efficiently couple to this model's sublattice polarized surface modes, comprised of emergent Majorana fermions that result from spin fractionalization. We demonstrate that the low-energy response is dominated by the surface contribution for thin films, allowing identification and characterization of emergent topological band structures.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures; added supplemental materia

    Theory of Raman response in three-dimensional Kitaev spin liquids: application to β\beta- and γ\gamma-Li2_2IrO3_3 compounds

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    We calculate the Raman response for the Kitaev spin model on the H\mathcal{H}-00, H\mathcal{H}-11, and H\mathcal{H}-\infty harmonic honeycomb lattices. We identify several quantitative features in the Raman spectrum that are characteristic of the spin liquid phase. Unlike the dynamical structure factor, which probes both the Majorana spinons and flux excitations that emerge from spin fractionalization, the Raman spectrum in the Kitaev models directly probes a density of states of pairs of fractional, dispersing Majorana spinons. As a consequence, the Raman spectrum in all these models is gapless for sufficiently isotropic couplings, with a low-energy power law that results from the Fermi lines (or points) of the dispersing Majorana spinons. We show that the polarization dependence of the Raman spectrum contains crucial information about the symmetry of the ground state. We also discuss to what extent the features of the Raman response that we find reflect generic properties of the spin liquid phase, and comment on their possible relevance to α\alpha-, β\beta- and γ\gamma-Li2_2IrO3_3 compounds.Comment: 19 pages, 10 figures. VERSION 2: Corrected Figure 5 and fixed inconsistencies between A and B chain-labelings. Also- a few typos and two new ref

    Neutron scattering signatures of the 3D hyper-honeycomb Kitaev quantum spin-liquid

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    Motivated by recent synthesis of the hyper-honeycomb material β\beta-Li2IrO3\mathrm{Li_2 Ir O_3}, we study the dynamical structure factor (DSF) of the corresponding 3D Kitaev quantum spin-liquid (QSL), whose fractionalised degrees of freedom are Majorana fermions and emergent flux-loops. Properties of this 3D model are known to differ in important ways from those of its 2D counterpart -- it has finite-temperature phase transition, as well as distinct features in Raman response. We show, however, that the qualitative behaviour of the DSF is broadly dimension-independent. Characteristics of the 3D DSF include a response gap even in the gapless QSL phase and an energy dependence deriving from the Majorana fermion density of states. Since the majority of the response is from states containing a single Majorana excitation, our results suggest inelastic neutron scattering as the spectroscopy of choice to illuminate the physics of Majorana fermions in Kitaev QSLs.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Resonant Raman scattering theory for Kitaev models and their Majorana fermion boundary modes

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    We study the inelastic light scattering response in two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Kitaev spin-liquid models with \ms band structures in the symmetry classes BDI and D leading to protected gapless surface modes. We present a detailed calculation of the resonant Raman/Brillouin scattering vertex relevant to iridate and ruthenate compounds whose low-energy physics is believed to be proximate to these spin-liquid phases. In the symmetry class BDI, we find that while the resonant scattering on thin films can detect the gapless boundary modes of spin liquids, the non-resonant processes do not couple to them. For the symmetry class D, however, we find that the coupling between both types of light-scattering processes and the low-energy surface states is strongly suppressed. Additionally, we describe the effect of weak time-reversal symmetry breaking perturbations on the bulk Raman response of these systems.Comment: 23 pages, 20 figures, 4 appendices, 2 ancillary file