141 research outputs found

    Four-neutrino analysis of 1.5km-baseline reactor antineutrino oscillations

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    The masses of sterile neutrinos are not yet known, and depending on the orders of magnitudes, their existence may explain reactor anomalies or the spectral shape of reactor neutrino events at 1.5km-baseline detector. Here, we present four-neutrino analysis of the results announced by RENO and Daya Bay, which performed the definitive measurements of θ13\theta_{13} based on the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos at km-order baselines. Our results using 3+1 scheme include the exclusion curve of Δm412\Delta m^2_{41} vs. θ14\theta_{14} and the adjustment of θ13\theta_{13} due to correlation with θ14\theta_{14}. The value of θ13\theta_{13} obtained by RENO and Daya Bay with a three-neutrino oscillation analysis is included in the 1σ1\sigma interval of θ13\theta_{13} allowed by our four-neutrino analysis.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1303.617

    Measurement of the Background Activities of a 100Mo-enriched powder sample for AMoRE crystal material using a single high purity germanium detector

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    The Advanced Molybdenum-based Rare process Experiment (AMoRE) searches for neutrino-less double-beta (0{\nu}\b{eta}\b{eta}) decay of 100Mo in enriched molybdate crystals. The AMoRE crystals must have low levels of radioactive contamination to achieve low background signals with energies near the Q-value of the 100Mo 0{\nu}\b{eta}\b{eta} decay. To produce low-activity crystals, radioactive contaminants in the raw materials used to form the crystals must be controlled and quantified. 100EnrMoO3 powder, which is enriched in the 100Mo isotope, is of particular interest as it is the source of 100Mo in the crystals. A high-purity germanium detector having 100% relative efficiency, named CC1, is being operated in the Yangyang underground laboratory. Using CC1, we collected a gamma spectrum from a 1.6-kg 100EnrMoO3 powder sample enriched to 96.4% in 100Mo. Activities were analyzed for the isotopes 228Ac, 228Th, 226Ra, and 40K. They are long-lived naturally occurring isotopes that can produce background signals in the region of interest for AMoRE. Activities of both 228Ac and 228Th were < 1.0 mBq/kg at 90% confidence level (C.L.). The activity of 226Ra was measured to be 5.1 \pm 0.4 (stat) \pm 2.2 (syst) mBq/kg. The 40K activity was found as < 16.4 mBq/kg at 90% C.L.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figures, 5 table

    Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken

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    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies

    Automatic White Balancing via Gray Surface Identification

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    The key to automatic white balancing of digital imagery is to estimate accurately the color of the overall scene illumination. Many methods for estimating the illumination’s color have been proposed [1-6]. Although not the most accurate, one of the simplest and quite widely used methods is the gray world algorithm [6]. Borrowing on some of the strengths and simplicity of the gray world algorithm, we introduce a modification of it that significantly improves on its performance while adding little to its complexity

    Outer membrane protein a of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium activates dendritic cells and enhances Th1 polarization

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Typhoid, which is caused by <it>Salmonella enterica </it>serovar Typhimurium, remains a major health concern worldwide. Multidrug-resistant strains of <it>Salmonella </it>have emerged which exhibit increased survivability and virulence, thus leading to increased morbidity. However, little is known about the protective immune response against this microorganism. The outer membrane protein (Omp)A of bacteria plays an important role in pathogenesis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We purified OmpA from <it>S. enterica </it>serovar Typhimurium (OmpA-sal) and characterized the role of OmpA-sal in promoting adaptive and innate immune responses. OmpA-sal functionally activated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by augmenting expression of CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex classes I and II. Interestingly, OmpA-sal induced production of interferon-γ from T cells in mixed lymphocyte reactions, thus indicating Th1-polarizing capacity. The expression of surface markers and cytokine production in dendritic cells was mediated by the TLR4 signaling pathway in a TLR4 Knock-out system.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our findings suggest that OmpA-sal modulates the adaptive immune responses to <it>S. enterica </it>serovar Typhimurium by activating dendritic cells and driving Th1 polarization, which are important properties to consider in the development of effective <it>S. enterica </it>serovar Typhimurium vaccines and immunotherapy adjuvant.</p

    Independent effect of body mass index variation on amyloid-β positivity

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    ObjectivesThe relationship of body mass index (BMI) changes and variability with amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition remained unclear, although there were growing evidence that BMI is associated with the risk of developing cognitive impairment or AD dementia. To determine whether BMI changes and BMI variability affected Aβ positivity, we investigated the association of BMI changes and BMI variability with Aβ positivity, as assessed by PET in a non-demented population.MethodsWe retrospectively recruited 1,035 non-demented participants ≥50 years of age who underwent Aβ PET and had at least three BMI measurements in the memory clinic at Samsung Medical Center. To investigate the association between BMI change and variability with Aβ deposition, we performed multivariable logistic regression. Further distinctive underlying features of BMI subgroups were examined by employing a cluster analysis model.ResultsDecreased (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–2.42) or increased BMI (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.11–2.32) was associated with a greater risk of Aβ positivity after controlling for age, sex, APOE e4 genotype, years of education, hypertension, diabetes, baseline BMI, and BMI variability. A greater BMI variability (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.07–2.80) was associated with a greater risk of Aβ positivity after controlling for age, sex, APOE e4 genotype, years of education, hypertension, diabetes, baseline BMI, and BMI change. We also identified BMI subgroups showing a greater risk of Aβ positivity.ConclusionOur findings suggest that participants with BMI change, especially those with greater BMI variability, are more vulnerable to Aβ deposition regardless of baseline BMI. Furthermore, our results may contribute to the design of strategies to prevent Aβ deposition with respect to weight control

    Beneficial and Adverse Effects of Bosentan Treatment in Korean Patients With Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

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    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the beneficial effect of bosentan treatment (125 mg twice daily) on exercise capacity and echocardiographic variables and 2) the profiles and frequency of adverse events in Korean patients with World Health Organization (WHO) class III or IV pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Subjects and Methods: Twelve patients who received bosentan treatment were investigated in an open label manner. One patient was excluded in the final analyses due to a prohibited concomitant medication. A 6-minute walk test and echocardiography were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: The administration of bosentan for 12 weeks resulted in a significant improvement in exercise capacity (measured with the 6-minute walking distance), WHO functional capacity, and in echocardiographic variables. Bosentan treatment was associated with a decrease in the maximal tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity {from 4.7 m/sec (95% confidence interval, 3.89-5.45) at baseline to 4.4 m/sec (95% confidence interval, 3.61-5.1) at 12 weeks, p=0.03} and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure {from 105 mmHg (95% confidence interval, 74.4-135.6) at baseline to 93 mmHg (95% confidence interval, 66.3-120.1) at 12 weeks, p=0.04}. Treatment with bosentan at a dose of 125 mg twice a day was not associated with life-threatening side effects, although a higher incidence of elevated liver enzymes compared to previous studies was noted. Conclusion: Bosentan at a dose of 125 mg twice daily is considered a clinically optimal, safe dose and can be used as a valuable treatment option in Korean PAH patients with WHO functional capacity III or IV, though close monitoring of liver function is required. Copyright �� 2009 The Korean Society of Cardiology

    Enhancement of paclitaxel-induced breast cancer cell death via the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta-mediated B-cell lymphoma 2 regulation

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    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is known to mediate cancer cell death. Here, we show that B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic protein, is regulated by GSK-3 beta and that GSK-3 beta-mediated regulation of Bcl-2 is crucial for mitochondrial-dependent cell death in paclitaxel-stimulated cells. We demonstrate that MCF7 GSK3 beta siRNA cells are more sensitive to cell death than MCF7 GFP control cells and that in the absence of GSK-3 beta, Bcl-2 levels are reduced, a result enhanced by paclitaxel. Paclitaxel-induced JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) activation is critical for Bcl-2 modulation. In the absence of GSK-3 beta, Bcl-2 was unstable in an ubiquitination-dependent manner in both basal-and paclitaxel-treated cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GSK-3 beta-mediated regulation of Bcl-2 influences cytochrome C release and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, our data suggest that GSK-3 beta-dependent regulation of Bcl-2 is crucial for mitochondria-dependent cell death in paclitaxel-mediated breast cancer therapy.clos