271 research outputs found

    Variation of fluxes of RR Tel emission lines measured in 2000 with respect to 1996

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    The aim of this work is to make available unpublished non-Fe+ emission line fluxes from optical spectra of the symbiotic nova RR Tel which were taken in 2000, and to compare them with fluxes of the same lines from spectra taken in 1996. After leaving out blends and misidentifications, as well as the unreliable far-red and violet lines, we present the log (F2000/F1996) flux ratios for identified non-Fe+ lines. Mean values of log (F2000/F1996) for different ionization potential ranges of the ions producing the lines are shown separately for the permitted and forbidden lines. All means show fading, which is larger in the lowest range of ionization potential. Provisional interpretations are suggested. We also measured the values of FWHM in 2000; the previously known decrease with time of FWHM of lines due to the same ion has continued.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figure

    Polarization measurements and their perspectives: PVLAS Phase II

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    We sketch the proposal for a "PVLAS-Phase II" experiment. The main physics goal is to achieve the first direct observation of non-linear effects in electromagnetism predicted by QED and the measurement of the photon-photon scattering cross section at low energies (1-2 eV). Physical processes such as ALP and MCP production in a magnetic field could also be accessible if sensitive enough operation is reached. The short term experimental strategy is to compact as much as possible the dimensions of the apparatus in order to bring noise sources under control and to attain a sufficient sensitivity. We will also briefly mention future pespectives, such as a scheme to implement the resonant regeneration principle for the detection of ALPs.Comment: Paper submitted to the proceedings of the "4th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs", DESY, Hamburg Site /Germany, 18-21 June 200

    Network constraints on learnability of probabilistic motor sequences

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    Human learners are adept at grasping the complex relationships underlying incoming sequential input. In the present work, we formalize complex relationships as graph structures derived from temporal associations in motor sequences. Next, we explore the extent to which learners are sensitive to key variations in the topological properties inherent to those graph structures. Participants performed a probabilistic motor sequence task in which the order of button presses was determined by the traversal of graphs with modular, lattice-like, or random organization. Graph nodes each represented a unique button press and edges represented a transition between button presses. Results indicate that learning, indexed here by participants' response times, was strongly mediated by the graph's meso-scale organization, with modular graphs being associated with shorter response times than random and lattice graphs. Moreover, variations in a node's number of connections (degree) and a node's role in mediating long-distance communication (betweenness centrality) impacted graph learning, even after accounting for level of practice on that node. These results demonstrate that the graph architecture underlying temporal sequences of stimuli fundamentally constrains learning, and moreover that tools from network science provide a valuable framework for assessing how learners encode complex, temporally structured information.Comment: 29 pages, 4 figure

    Quantum dynamics of a vibrational mode of a membrane within an optical cavity

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    Optomechanical systems are a promising candidate for the implementation of quantum interfaces for storing and redistributing quantum information. Here we focus on the case of a high-finesse optical cavity with a thin vibrating semitransparent membrane in the middle. We show that robust and stationary optomechanical entanglement could be achieved in the system, even in the presence of nonnegligible optical absorption in the membrane. We also present some preliminary experimental data showing radiation-pressure induced optical bistability.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures. Work presented at the conference QCMC 2010 held on 19-23 July 2010 at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australi

    Quantum dynamics of a high-finesse optical cavity coupled with a thin semi-transparent membrane

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    We study the quantum dynamics of the cavity optomechanical system formed by a Fabry-Perot cavity with a thin vibrating membrane at its center. We first derive the general multimode Hamiltonian describing the radiation pressure interaction between the cavity modes and the vibrational modes of the membrane. We then restrict the analysis to the standard case of a single cavity mode interacting with a single mechanical resonator and we determine to what extent optical absorption by the membrane hinder reaching a quantum regime for the cavity-membrane system. We show that membrane absorption does not pose serious limitations and that one can simultaneously achieve ground state cooling of a vibrational mode of the membrane and stationary optomechanical entanglement with state-of-the-art apparatuses.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure

    KWISP: an ultra-sensitive force sensor for the Dark Energy sector

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    An ultra-sensitive opto-mechanical force sensor has been built and tested in the optics laboratory at INFN Trieste. Its application to experiments in the Dark Energy sector, such as those for Chameleon-type WISPs, is particularly attractive, as it enables a search for their direct coupling to matter. We present here the main characteristics and the absolute force calibration of the KWISP (Kinetic WISP detection) sensor. It is based on a thin Si3N4 micro-membrane placed inside a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. By monitoring the cavity characteristic frequencies it is possible to detect the tiny membrane displacements caused by an applied force. Far from the mechanical resonant frequency of the membrane, the measured force sensitivity is 5.0e-14 N/sqrt(Hz), corresponding to a displacement sensitivity of 2.5e-15 m/sqrt(Hz), while near resonance the sensitivity is 1.5e-14 N/sqrt(Hz), reaching the estimated thermal limit, or, in terms of displacement, 7.5e-16 N/sqrt(Hz). These displacement sensitivities are comparable to those that can be achieved by large interferometric gravitational wave detectors.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures in colo

    Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

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    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and "fifth force" searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called "chameleon" mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on Earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary results from a force/pressure sensor, currently under development at INFN Trieste, to be mounted in the focal plane of one of the X-Ray telescopes of the CAST experiment at CERN. We show, that such an experiment signifies a pioneering effort probing uncharted chameleon parameter space.Comment: revised versio

    Optomechanically induced transparency in membrane-in-the-middle setup at room temperature

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    We demonstrate the analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a room temperature cavity optomechanics setup formed by a thin semitransparent membrane within a Fabry-P\'erot cavity. Due to destructive interference, a weak probe field is completely reflected by the cavity when the pump beam is resonant with the motional red sideband of the cavity. Under this condition we infer a significant slowing down of light of hundreds of microseconds, which is easily tuned by shifting the membrane along the cavity axis. We also observe the associated phenomenon of electromagnetically induced amplification which occurs due to constructive interference when the pump is resonant with the blue sideband.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Optomechanical sideband cooling of a thin membrane within a cavity

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    We present an experimental study of dynamical back-action cooling of the fundamental vibrational mode of a thin semitransparent membrane placed within a high-finesse optical cavity. We study how the radiation pressure interaction modifies the mechanical response of the vibrational mode, and the experimental results are in agreement with a Langevin equation description of the coupled dynamics. The experiments are carried out in the resolved sideband regime, and we have observed cooling by a factor 350 We have also observed the mechanical frequency shift associated with the quadratic term in the expansion of the cavity mode frequency versus the effective membrane position, which is typically negligible in other cavity optomechanical devices.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figure
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