21 research outputs found

    Social Contacts and the Economic Performance of Immigrants: A Panel Study of Immigrants in Germany

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    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examined the impact of social contacts on immigrant occupational status and income. In addition to general social contacts, we also analyzed the effects of bonding (i.e., co-ethnic) and bridging (i.e., interethnic) ties on economic outcomes. Results show that general social contacts have a positive effect on the occupational status and, in particular, annual income of immigrants. We also find that bridging ties with Germans lead to higher occupational status, but not to increased income. These effects remain visible even when social contacts are measured (at least) one year prior to the economic outcomes, as well as when earlier investments in German human capital are considered. Finally, we show that co-ethnic concentration in the region of residence weakly affects economic returns to German language proficiency and schooling.occupational status, social contacts, immigrants, income, panel data

    Mutacja spontaniczna w obrębie genu TCF2 przyczyną cukrzycy MODY5 — prezentacja przypadku klinicznego

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      MODY5 is one of the less common forms of MODY (1–2%). It is a genetic disorder inherited through an autosomal dominant mutation or deletion of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta gene. MODY5 is associated with genital tract malformations such as hypoplasia of uterus, hypoplasia of vagina, bicornuate uterus, other uterine malformations, hypospadias and atresia of vas deferens. Moreover, moderate idiopathic hyperuricaemia, elevated liver function tests (ALT, GGTP) without jaundice and with normal ultrasound image of the liver, pancreatic atrophy and pyloric stenosis were found in some patients. Objective: Description of the maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), a rare type of diabetes. A 30-year-old woman, with no family history of diseases, was repeatedly seen by various healthcare professionals because of her numerous non-specific symptoms: pain in the forehead, stomach pain, retrosternal pain, lower limbs pain, reduced right eye visual acuity, dizziness, photosensitivity, syncope, diarrhoea, nausea, weight loss, fatigue, action tremor of the whole body most prominent in the right upper limb and muscle weakness most notable in the morning. She was diagnosed with diabetes and was initiated on insulin therapy. Blood samples were taken for immunological and genetic investigations. Testing revealed the patient is heterozygous for mutation of deletion of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta gene, that is MODY5 gene. The patient was switched to OHA therapy. The mutation of factor-1beta was not found in the patient’s family. Ultrasound scanning of the abdomen revealed a 12 mm cyst with massive wall calcification in the right kidney and one cyst with solid component and three small, simple cysts in the central part of the left kidney. It also showed a 50 mm right ovarian cyst, bicornuate uterus and a vaginal fibroma. Skin lesions on the right shin were identified as necrobiosis lipoidica. Laboratory tests showed high urine pH and periodic electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalemia. Differential diagnosis that includes monogenic forms of diabetes may lead to optimization of treatment and more accurate evaluation of prognosis for patients and their family members.    Cukrzyca MODY5 stanowi jeden z rzadszych typów cukrzycy typu MODY (1–2%). Jest chorobą genetycznie uwarunkowaną, dziedziczoną jako cecha autosomalna dominująca, związaną z mutacją lub delecją hepatocytowego czynnika jądrowego HNF-1b kodowanego. Cukrzycy MODY5 mogą towarzyszyć wady rozwojowe układu rozrodczego, takie jak: niedorozwój macicy, pochwy, macica dwurożna, inne malformacje macicy, spodziectwo, atrezja nasieniowodów. Ponadto u części pacjentów wykazano umiarkowaną hiperurykemię o niewyjaśnionej etiologii, podwyższone wartości ALT i GGTP bez żółtaczki oraz zmiany w USG wątroby, atrofię trzustki i zwężenie odźwiernika. Celem pracy jest prezentacja rzadkiej postaci cukrzycy, jaką stanowi cukrzyca typu MODY5. Chora, lat 30, bez wywiadu rodzinnego w kierunku chorób przewlekłych, wielokrotnie diagnozowana w różnych placówkach leczniczych z powodu licznych, niespecyficznych dolegliwości bólowych: okolicy czołowej głowy, brzucha, okolicy zamostkowej oraz kończyn dolnych, pogorszenia ostrości widzenia oka prawego, zawrotów głowy, nadwrażliwości na światło, omdleń, biegunek, nudności, spadku masy ciała, osłabienia, drżenia wysiłkowego całego ciała z przewagą drżenia wysiłkowego prawej kończyny górnej, osłabienia siły mięśniowej kończyn, głównie w godzinach porannych. Diagnostyka zaburzeń endokrynnych ujawniła cukrzycę. Rozpoczęto leczenie insuliną oraz pobrano krew na badania immunologiczne i genetyczne, które ujawniły, że pacjentka jest heterozygotą dla mutacji delecji genu HNF-1beta, czyli jest to cukrzyca typu MODY5. Zmieniono leczenie na doustny lek hipoglikemizujący. W rodzinie nie wykryto mutacji czynnika HNF-1beta. U opisywanej chorej w badaniu USG jamy brzusznej w obrębie nerki prawej uwidoczniono torbiel o średnicy około 12 mm z dużymi zwapnieniami w ścianie, natomiast w nerce lewej w części centralnej torbiel z gęstą zawartością oraz trzy drobne torbiele proste. Stwierdzano również obecność torbieli jajnika prawego o średnicy około 50 mm, macicę dwurożną oraz włókniaka w obrębie pochwy. Na prawej goleni występowały zmiany na skórze o charakterze necrobiosis lipoidica. W badaniach laboratoryjnych uwagę zwracało wysokie pH moczu i okresowo pojawiające się zaburzenia elektrolitowe w postaci hipokalemii. Uwzględnienie w diagnostyce różnicowej cukrzycy jej form monogenowych może się przyczynić do optymalizacji leczenia oraz ustalenia właściwego rokowania u pacjenta i członków jego rodziny.

    Greater local supply of language courses improves refugees’ labor market integration

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    Utilizing the German residential allocation and residency obligation policies, which can be regarded as a natural experiment, we investigate the causal effect of the local supply of language courses on refugees' labor market integration. By restricting refugees’ initial and post-arrival regional mobility, these policies allow us to circumvent the potential problems of initial and post-arrival residential selection. Moreover, we examine the intermediary outcomes – language proficiency, language course completion and certification, and contacts with natives – through which the local opportunity structure of language courses shape refugees’ economic integration. Our results reveal that the local supply of language courses positively affects refugees’ employment probability, and this effect persists over the duration of stay. We further find that greater supply of language courses in the assigned county increases probability of learning the German language, completing the course and receiving language certificates. From a policy perspective, our findings imply that the local provision of language courses should be considered in refugees’ residential allocation to facilitate immigrants' integration. This is because limited access to such courses can delay host country language learning, language certificate obtainment, and labor market entry, thus slowing the integration of recently arrived immigrants

    Non-cognitive skills and immigrant-native inequalities in the labor market in Europe

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    Non-cognitive skills are increasingly essential in the labor market, especially given technological advances and evolving work environments. Unequal distribution of non-cognitive skills among various groups in the population may contribute to labor market inequalities. This article investigates the significance of non-cognitive skills for immigrant-native inequalities in the European labor market. Specifically, we examine the potential differences in non-cognitive skills between native and immigrant groups and how these differences may affect their income. Additionally, we explore whether equal levels of non-cognitive skills have comparable payoffs for native and immigrant groups in society. We use, comparative survey data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies and OLS regressions with country fixed effects. Our findings show that many immigrants exhibit lower levels of non-cognitive skills than native-born workers, despite differences between origin groups. This difference in non-cognitive skills explains part of the immigrant-native inequality in the labor market for most immigrant-origin groups. Moreover, our results indicate that immigrants, especially those from Central and Eastern European countries, benefit less from exercising comparable non-cognitive skills than native-born workers. Our study highlights the importance of non-cognitive skills in addressing the labor market disadvantage faced by immigrants, and emphasizes that policymakers and educators should recognize the significance of these skills when developing policies targeting immigrants
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